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Study_Guides_6__Lipids - Study Guide 6 Lipids(Kopachik...

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Study Guide 6 Lipids (Kopachik) Terms to know: Active transport: movement of an impermeable molecule from low to high concentration sides using energy Amphipathic: having both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophobic region Aquaporin: a channel protein in the plasma membrane of a plant, animal, or microorganism cell that specifically facilitates osmosis, the diffusion of free water across the membrane Bilayer: Bulk transport: carrying the impermeable molecule across in a vesicle Carrier protein: alternates between two shapes, moving a solute across the membrane during the shape change Cell adhesion: Cell recognition: Channel protein: it has a channel through which water molecules or a specific solute can pass Cholesterol: crucial molecule in animals Coated pits: Concentration gradient: a region along which the density of a chemical substances increases or decreases Diffusion: the spontaneous movement of a substance down its concentration or electrochemical gradient, from a region where it is more concentrated to a region where it is less concentrated Electrochemical gradient: the diffusion gradient of an ion, which is affected by both the concentration difference of an ion across a membrane and the ion’s tendency to move relative to the membrane potential Electrogenic proton pump: store energy by generating voltage across membranes, translocates positive charge in the form of hydrogen ions, powered by ATP Endocytosis: cellular uptake of biological molecules and particular matter via formation of vesicles from the plasma membrane Ester bond: Extracellular matrix: the meshwork surrounding animal cells, consisting of glycol- proteins, polysaccharides, and proteoglycans synthesized and secreted by the cells Facilitated diffusion: net diffusion movement of an impermeable molecule across the membrane using a transporter Fatty acid: long carbon skeleton, usually 16-18 carbon atoms in length Fluid mosaic: phospholipid bilayer with proteins embedded (integral proteins) or attached to the surface (peripheral proteins). Fluidity: Freeze fracture: Glycerol: alcohol, each of its three carbons bears a hydroxyl group Head: hydrophilic Hypertonic: referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to lose water Hypotonic: referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to take up water
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Integral protein: penetrate the hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer Ion channel: a transmembrane protein channel that allows a specific ion to diffuse across the membrane down its concentration or electro-chemical gradient Isotonic: referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, causes no net movement of water into or out of the cell Lipid: grouped together because they share one important trait: mix poorly with water Membrane potential: the difference in electrical charge across a cell’s plasma membrane due to the differential distribution of ions. Membrane potential affects the activity of excitable cells and the transmembrane movement of all charged substances
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