Psyc Exam 1 study guide

Psyc Exam 1 study guide - Science and Psychology Chapter 2...

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Science and Psychology – Chapter 2 - Empiricism : experience and observation = ultimate source of our knowledge. - Rationalism : base knowledge on reason , the fundamental truth, not our experiences because they can be flawed. Descartes “clear and distinct ideas” “I think, therefore I am”. Scientific Method - Hypothesis -a theory, a model idea of what is going on that you want to prove - Prediction -what experimenter expects to see if the hypothesis is true - Independent Variable – what we manipulate, the cause - Dependent variables –what we measure, the effect/outcome - Experimental group - subjects who receive some special treatment (independent variable) - Control groups - do not receive the special treatment -test the experiment - analysis and conclusion Confounding Variable (nuisance, extraneous variable, or third variable) influence the outcome of DV, create false relationship between IV and DV, but are not taken into account or known to the experimenter Internal validity : have good evidence and confidence that the experiment works (threats: bias) Examples : big shoe size -> big vocabulary; confounding variable: age Solution: Randomizing subjects/materials- large participants, chance are equally distributed. Case control : strictly matched variables. Correlational Research Correlational – may give strong reasons, but NO causal conclusion drawn. Adv: explore questions that cannot be examined with experimental procedures. Disadv: cannot demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships b/w variables Correlational research is necessary when human responses are hard to measure or manipulate Experimental – more powerful. Evidence/justification is gathered. Allow conclusion to be drawn. Adv: have control over variables, best establish cause and effect. Disadv: subject to human error, sample may not represent the population, artificial results. Naturalistic observation - observer does not interfere with the environment, avoid interaction with the subjects, no experiments. Positive correlation : one goes up, the other goes up. Ex: height & weight
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Negative correlation : One goes down, the other goes down. Ex: alcohol & coordinance Correlation coefficient : the number indicating the how strong the correlation is. Close to 1/-1 = the strongest; close to 0 = one doesn’t affect the other. 3 rd variable correlation : its occurrence changes the correlation between 2 variables Correlation vs. causation –correlation is non-experimental. Causation is from experiments. Case study –in-depth study of individual, a research strategy Survey research –gather data using questionnaire or interview. Sample (because cost is low, collect data faster, room to improve). Representative - specific group to represent the population. Random – unbiased. Scatter plots
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Psyc Exam 1 study guide - Science and Psychology Chapter 2...

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