Psyc Exam 3 study guide

Psyc Exam 3 study guide - Psyc Exam 3 Mental Ability Tests...

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Psyc Exam 3 Mental Ability Tests: 1. Achievement – measure what’s accomplished/learned in that domain. Ex: school tests 2. Aptitude – measure potential in a particular domain. Ex: SAT, applicant test, military test 3. Hypothetical Constructs – theoretical idea of measuring, most difficult to prove valid. Ex: IQ test measures an idea of “general intelligence” - Standardization : everyone takes under the same circumstance w/ same amount of time - Norm test : score has meaning only when in comparison with other students. Ex: grading on a curve. Top 10% get As, bottom 10% get Fs. Raw score is not important, percentile score is! - Reliability : constant and stable measurement (get relatively the same score every time). IQ test has high reliability . - Validity : test is measuring what it’s supposed to measure, nothing else. 1. Content Validity – in achievement test, right content of what you already learned. Ex: test materials isn’t covered in class low content validity 2. Criterion Validity – in aptitude test, valid index to tell the potential of successfulness. Ex: bad SAT scores but good college grades low criterion validity 3. Construct Validity – in hypothetical constructs test, confounding variables could cause changes in measurements. Ex: we don’t know if IQ test is really measuring the so-called general intelligence. Therefore, IQ test has low construct validity . IQ test is designed to measure hypothetical construct of “general intelligence”, but is actually an aptitude test. This is why IQ scores tend to be very good predicators of the ability to do schoolwork/academic performance. Mean score is 100, bell curve normed to age. Intelligence: potential to learn more quickly, not the knowledge. This is why IQ test can be given to a 9-year-old but SAT can’t. IQ test can be used through a life span. IQ is nature or nurture? Eugenics movement (1900-1960) Ppl at the time believe IQ is fully genetically determined.
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Eugenics is the idea that characteristics of a generation can be modified and controlled through breeding the best human genes. The U.S. was center for this movement, took the breeding to the extreme: state laws sterilize the ppl who have undesirable traits (low IQ score people, prostitutes, midgets, mentally disabled, homosexuals). The Supreme Courts overruled the enforcement of sterilization in 1970s. Eugenics was also promoted by the Nazi, they didn’t sterilize, they completely eliminate (kill) so that they have a “cleaner gene pool” Twin Studies Influence of genetics : Identical twins together have closer IQ than fraternal twins together . Influence of environment : 1) Identical twins together have closer IQ than identical twins apart . 2) Twin in deprived environment have lower IQ score than twin enriched environment , and gap b/w IQs grows larger the more time they spend in different environments. Intelligent parents w/ an intellectual-pursuit environment
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Psyc Exam 3 study guide - Psyc Exam 3 Mental Ability Tests...

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