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Lecture5EvolutionAdaptation

Lecture5EvolutionAdaptation - Adaptations and Biomes Why...

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Adaptations and Biomes Why are organisms so well suited to survive in their environments?
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Black-capped Chickadee Non-migratory Caches Small/high metabolism Spatial memory
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Alaska vs Kansas Population from both geographic regions Common Garden Experiment Relative environmental conditions AK harsh KS milder Predictions Spatial memory Hippocampus physiology Learning
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Alaska birds cache more and learn faster Alaska Kansas
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Alaska birds have more neurons,higher neurogenesis, but similar-sized Hippocampi Neuron number Hippocampal volume Neuron growth
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NATURAL SELECTION & ADAPTATION
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REVIEW EVOLUTION explains the way in which the form and function of organisms are shaped by the environment ECOLOGY explains the current distribution and abundance of organisms CANNOT understand one without the other
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Remember this? Evolution = Selection X Heritable Variation Selection acts at the phenotypic level Evolution occurs at the genotypic level
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GENOTYPE – includes all of the genes that an individual carries PHENOTYPE – the outward expression of the genotype
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GENOTYPE – includes all of the genes that an individual carries PHENOTYPE – the outward expression of the genotype Homozygous Heterozygous Dominant Recessive Codominant
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Ultimately phenotype is influenced by the environment Not all of the phenotype is genetically based
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Phenotypic Plasticity The capacity of an indivdual to exhibit different phenotypes depending on the environment
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Phenotypic Plasticity Nemoria arizonaria Daphnia Fairy Shrimp Absent Fairy shrimp present Spadefoot toad tadpoles
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