jour ch3 - Communica)on
 Communica)ons
 Chapter
3
...

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Unformatted text preview: 1/30/11 Communica)on
 Communica)ons
 Chapter
3
 Communica)on;
Typical
Goals
 •  •  •  •  To
inform
 To
persuade
 To
mo)vate
 To
build
mutual
understanding
 •  The
art
of
expressing
ideas
especially
in
 speech
and
wri)ng
 •  The
science
of
transmi:ng
informa)on
 especially
in
symbols
 •  Giving
or
exchanging
informa)on
 Public
Rela)ons
 The
management
of
communica(on
 between
and
organiza)on
and
it’s
publics.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 Two
–step
Flow
of
Informa)on
 The
S‐E‐M‐D‐R
Model
of
 Communica)on
 Organization Source













Message













Receiver
 Mass Media 








Encoding
















Decoding
 Consumers/public 1 1/30/11 Tradi)onal
Communica)ons
Model
 Traditional Model Noise Source Message Channel Receiver •  •  •  •  •  •  Noise
 Source
 Message
 Channel
 Receiver
 Feedback
 Feedback Noise Media
Effects
 Media
Effects
 Powerful Effects Strong Effects Moderate Effects Limited Effects 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Theories
of
Media
Effects
 •  •  •  •  •  •  The
Magic
Bullet
 Agenda‐Se:ng
 Media
Dependency
 Framing
 Cul)va)on
 Uses
and
Gra)fica)on
 •  Different
effects,
different
types
of
people,
 with
different
results
 •  Generaliza)ons
easy
to
make
but
hard
to
 prove
 •  Look
for
paQerns,
predictable
results,
 sta)s)cal
results
 •  Number
of
theories
aQemp)ng
to
explain
 some
aspect
of
the
effects
 The
Magic
Bullet
 •  Mass
media
has
great
power
over
the
public
 •  Media
controlled
the
public
 •  Focus
was
early
radio,
television,
adver)sing
 2 1/30/11 War
of
the
Worlds
 •  •  •  •  •  •  October
30,
1938
 CBS’s
Mercury
Theater
 6
million
listeners
 1
million
excited
by
the
news
 Panic
behavior
triggered
by
mass
media
 Experts
in
program
led
to
credibility
 The
Magic
Bullet
 •  people
were
stuck
in
a
kind
of
virtual
world
in
which
fic)on
 was
confused
for
fact
 •  the
broadcast
revealed
the
way
poli)cians
could
use
the
 power
of
mass
communica)ons
to
create
theatrical
illusions,
 to
manipulate
the
public
 •  we
now
live
in
an
age
of
simula)on
confusion
in
which
our
 tendency
to
mistake
fakes
for
what
they
imitate
has
become
 one
of
the
characteris)c
problems
of
the
age.
 Agenda
Se:ng
Theory
 •  Mass
media
has
great
power
over
the
public
 Media content sets the agenda for public discussion; and by the selection of stories and headlines, tell the people what to think about, but not necessarily what to think Agenda‐Se:ng
Theory
 Agenda‐Se:ng
Process
Model
 –  The
media
agenda,
which
influences

 –  The
public
agenda,
which
in
turn
may
influence
 –  The
public
policy
agenda
 Media
Dependency
Theory
 Mass media can have a moderate or even powerful effect on the formation of opinions and attitudes When people have no prior information or attitude disposition regarding a subject, the mass media play a role in telling people what to think 3 1/30/11 Framing
Theory
 Journalists select certain facts, themes, treatments, and even words to “frame” a story Cul)va)on
Theory
 • News content is mediated reality since events are repackaged to be more succinct, logical, and interesting • This mediated reality can influence beliefs and conduct if repeated often enough Applies to public relations efforts • Television violence is an example of cultivation Uses
and
Gra)fica)on
Theory
 •  Shi^s
the
focus
of
research
from
the
purpose
 of
the
communicator
to
the
needs
of
the
 receiver
 •  Power
with
the
receiver
 •  Receiver
selects
the
medium,
channel
 The
Press
Agentry
Model
 Propaganda is the purpose, sought through one-way communication that is often incomplete, distorted, or only partially true. Communication is viewed as telling, not listening and little if any research is undertaken. Grunig‐Hunt
PR
Models
 •  •  •  •  Press
Agentry
 Public
Informa)on
 Two‐way
Asymmetric

 Two‐way
Symmetric

 The
Public
Informa)on
Model
 The purpose is the dissemination of information, not necessarily with a persuasive intent. It uses a “journalists-in-residence” to prepare and release information to the mass media and controlled media such as newsletters, brochures, and direct mail. 4 1/30/11 The
Two‐Way
Symmetrical
Model
 The
Two‐Way
Asymmetrical
Model
 The purpose is scientific persuasion through messages developed by research with the intent to persuade strategic publics to behave as the organization wants. It is a selfish model in that the organization believes it is right and that any change needed to resolve a conflict must come from the public and not the organization. The purpose is to gain mutual understanding with balanced effects. The model is based on research and uses communication to manage conflict and improve understanding with strategic publics. It is based on negotiation and compromise and is generally more ethical than the other models. Wal‐Mart
 •  1.6
million
employees
 •  3,700
stores
in
U.S.
 •  $170
million
from
the
 founda)on
 •  $11
billion
state
&
local
 taxes
 •  17‐20%
lower
prices
 •  $10
billion
income
 •  Wages
$10
hour
 Wal‐Mart
 •  •  •  •  •  Gender
Discrimina)on

 Low
Wages
 Health
Care
 Immigra)on
Laws
 $285
billion
sales
 WAL‐MART
 The
High
Cost
of
Low
Price
 •  WAL‐MART:
The
High
Cost
of
Low
Price
takes
 you
behind
the
glitz
and
into
the
real
lives
of
 workers
and
their
families,
business
owners
 and
their
communi)es,
in
an
extraordinary
 journey
that
will
challenge
the
way
you
think,
 feel...
and
shop.

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