beng100chapter2

beng100chapter2 - BENG 100 Frontiers of Biomedical...

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1 BENG 100 Frontiers of Biomedical Engineering Professor Mark Saltzman Chapter 2 SUMMARY This chapter reviewed biochemical concepts that are important in understanding the interaction between molecules with each other, molecules and their solvents, and molecules and the cell membrane. • Atoms can form ionic or covalent bonds with one another. • Hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions are weak bonds between molecules. • Most chemical reactions in the body take place in an aqueous environment. The type of molecule - polar, nonpolar, acidic, basic - affects how it behaves in an aqueous environment. • Hydrogen bonding is important in water chemistry as well as in the assembly of macromolecules, such as nucleic acids and proteins. • Buffer systems in the blood help to maintain near neutral pH, which is critical to the function of many enzymes. • The body maintains homeostasis through negative feedback mechanisms, such as the bicarbonate buffering system, that detect a change and act to reduce the magnitude of the change. • Biomolecules contain various functional groups that confer different properties. • Carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins are polymers of small subunits. • The cell is isolated from its extracellular environment by the phospholipid bilayer membrane. Phospholipids are amphiphilic molecules that make up the bilayer along with proteins and glycolipids. • Diffusion is the movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to low concentration. • Molecules can cross the membrane via passive or facilitated diffusion depending on their permeability. • Active transport allows molecules to be transported against their concentration gradient by requiring energy input in the form of ATP. • Diffusion of water is called osmosis. Movement of water through a selective membrane can generate osmotic pressure.
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2 KEY CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS acid - a compound that can donate a proton (H + ). The carboxyl and phosphate groups are the primary acidic groups in biological molecules. acidosis – excess of acid in the body fluids, as may occur in kidney disease or diabetes adenine – a compound that is one of four constituent bases of nucleic acid that is a purine derivative and hybridizes thymine in double stranded DNA amino acid - monomeric building block of proteins, consisting of a carbon atom bound to a carboxyl group, an amino group, a hydrogen atom, and a distinctive side chain amphiphilic – a molecule that has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions anion – negatively charged ion, e.g. Cl - active transport - the transport of molecules in an energetically unfavorable direction across a membrane coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP or other source of energy ATP (adenosine 5’-triphosphate) - a nucleotide that is the most important molecule for capturing and transferring free energy in cells. Hydrolysis of each of the two high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds in ATP is accompanied by a large free-energy change (" G ) of 7 kcal/mole
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