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beng100chapter5 - BENG 100 Frontiers of Biomedical...

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1 BENG 100 Frontiers of Biomedical Engineering Professor Mark Saltzman Chapter 5 SUMMARY • Eukaryotic cells have lipid bilayer plasma membranes that separate their contents— including cytoplasm and organelles—from the extracellular environment. • All cells utilize similar elements: the cytoskeleton is essential for determining cell shape; ribosomes, rER, and Golgi are essential for protein synthesis; mitochondria are involved in energy production; lysosomes are important for digestion of unwanted material; genetic information is encoded on chromosomal DNA in the nucleus. • ECM is important for maintaining tissue structure, holding cells in position within tissues, and providing a mechanical/chemical support for cell function. • Some membrane proteins allow cells to regulate transport of molecules between the internal and external environment; other membrane proteins allow the cell to adhere to other cells or to ECM; other membrane proteins serve as receptors for ligands and hormones. • The cell cycle is an orderly sequence of events describing the life of a cell, from birth to division, with checkpoints that control critical cell transformations: the phases of the cell cycle are useful for describing cell activities. • Stem cells are immature cells, which are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into more mature forms. • Cell culture is one of the most important techniques of modern biology; it has also developed into an important tool for production by biomedical engineers. KEY CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS adhesion molecules - family of extracellular and cell surface glycoproteins involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, recognition, activation and migration. anaphase - stage in meiosis and mitosis in which sister chromatids are separated by the mitotic spindle fibers. The chromatids are pulled away from one another to opposite poles of the dividing cell, the nuclear membrane begins to reform and the cleavage furrow begins to constrict. apoptosis - programmed cell death that enables the body to dispose of damaged, unwanted, or unneeded cells
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2 asymmetrical division - division process of unipotent cells in which one of the two offspring maintains stem cell characteristics and the other differentiates and maintains a specific function blastomere - cell formed by the division of a fertilized egg in which the G phase is absent, so replication occurs quickly, making up the blastula centromere - region of a nuclear chromosome to which the spindle fibers attach to the kinetochore during cell division chromatids - pair of replicated chromosomes produced during mitosis or meiosis. Separate during anaphase of meiosis II or mitosis when the centromeres divide and each becomes its own chromosome cleavage furrow - constriction of the cell membrane during anaphase at the equator of the cell that marks the beginning of cytokinesis in animal cells. As the furrow deeps the cell
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