beng100chapter7

beng100chapter7 - BENG 100 Frontiers of Biomedical...

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1 BENG 100 Frontiers of Biomedical Engineering Professor Mark Saltzman Chapter 7 SUMMARY • Engineering analysis requires definition of the system under study, which is accomplished by identifying system boundaries. • Systems at steady state do not change appreciably with time. • Internal respiration is the process by which cells obtain energy by oxidation of chemical compounds; external respiration is the process of exchange of oxygen with the external environment, which is accomplished by the lungs. • Hemoglobin allows blood to carry substantial quantities of oxygen, despite the low solubility of oxygen in water. • Carbon dioxide dissolved in water forms carbonic acid, which dissociates to bicarbonate and hydrogen ions; the bicarbonate/carbon dioxide system is the primary mechanism for buffering to stabilize against changes in pH in the body. • The digestive system is responsible for digestion of food into its molecular components, and absorption of nutrients into the body. • The chemical reactions of digestion can be understood in terms of mathematical models of chemical reactors. KEY CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS alveolus ( pl. alveoli) - one of the terminal sac-like dilations of the alveolar ducts in the lung. alveolar duct – the part of the respiratory passage beyond the bronchioles from which alveolar sacs and alveoli arise. assumption – a proposition that is treated for the sake of a given discussion as if it were known to be true. bronchiole – a minute branch into which the bronchus divides, which lack cartilage.
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beng100chapter7 - BENG 100 Frontiers of Biomedical...

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