beng100chapter12

beng100chapter12 - BENG 100 Frontiers of Biomedical...

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1 BENG 100 Frontiers of Biomedical Engineering Professor Mark Saltzman Chapter 12 SUMMARY • The technology to image inside the body and at a microscopic scale has greatly evolved and has significantly enhanced our ability to diagnose and treat disease providing an array of imaging modalities each with strengths and weaknesses. • X-ray and CT imaging provided the first true windows into the body enabling the visualization of internal structure. • Ultrasound imaging is fast, portable and cheap providing dynamic images of structure and velocity. • Nuclear medicine allows the imaging of function within the body using radioactive compounds to quantify physiologic changes in disease. • Microscopy has matured in the last hundred years with fluorescence and confocal imaging enabling the visualization of structure and function at the microscopic scale and in three dimensions. • Endoscopy literally brings a camera into the body to image internal structure for diagnostic and surgical applications. • Magnetic resonance imaging is the most versatile modality providing structure and function in a programmable way. • Computer processing of images is essential for the formation and quantification of images, improving their appearance and enabling the measurement of anatomy and function. KEY CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS coincidence detection – a method for simultaneously detecting two signals at the same time. computed tomography (CT) – a medial imaging method that utilizes x-rays to image internal structures of an object by compiling a series of two-dimensional cross-sections to create three dimensional images through computer technology. contrast – the relative change in intensity (from dark to bright or vice versa) between two neighboring regions in an image. contrast agent – a material that is injected during imaging, such as a barium sulfate or iodine, to make a particular tissue more visible during radiological imaging tests. cyclotron – a type of particle accelerator used to produce radioactive substances by
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2 alternating electric fields to add energy to sub-atomic particles. digital – a method of storing information electronically through the use of the binary language, or an array of numbers, typically “1” and “0”. Doppler effect – a change in the apparent frequency or wavelength of a wave due to a
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This note was uploaded on 02/06/2012 for the course BENG 100 taught by Professor Marksaltzman during the Spring '08 term at Yale.

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beng100chapter12 - BENG 100 Frontiers of Biomedical...

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