beng100chapter15 - BENG 100 Frontiers of Biomedical...

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1 BENG 100 Frontiers of Biomedical Engineering Professor Mark Saltzman Chapter 15 SUMMARY • One of the most important advances in medical science over the past 200 years is the use of vaccines to prevent infectious disease. • The immune system responds to the presence of many foreign antigens by producing specific antibodies. Antibodies vary in specificity as well as class; the ability to make a range of antibodies is important in health and creates many opportunities in biotechnology. • A variety of approaches to vaccine production have been developed, including the use of attenuated or killed viruses, protein subunits, engineered viruses, and DNA as the vaccine component. • Despite important progress in disease prevention, there is still much to learn about how to make vaccines and how the immune system responds to different vaccine preparations. KEY CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS antibodies – a large Y-shaped protein that is used in the immune system to identify and counteract invaders such as viruses, bacteria, or transplanted organ by binding to the antigen. antigen – a substance introduced into the body that can stimulate the production of antibodies. antiserum – a serum composed of antibodies that has been inoculated into an animal for
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This note was uploaded on 02/06/2012 for the course BENG 100 taught by Professor Marksaltzman during the Spring '08 term at Yale.

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beng100chapter15 - BENG 100 Frontiers of Biomedical...

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