midterm_exam_solutions

midterm_exam_solutions - Name BENG 100b: Frontiers in...

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Name Page 1 of 8 BENG 100b: Frontiers in Biomedical Engineering Midterm Examination 28 February 2006 There are 100 possible points on this exam. THIS EXAM IS CLOSED BOOK. SHORT ANSWER (Total=70 points) Read the questions carefully. For short answer questions, keep your response in the space provided, but give the most complete answer that you can. 1. (6 points) Distinguish between the innate and adaptive immune responses: Innate immunity is present from birth and is achieved primarily via barriers, e.g. skin, mucous, temperature, pH. Innate immunity is non-specific and, therefore, responds equally to all assaults. Adapative immunity, however, is specific and has memory. Those characteristics give it diversity and allow it to distinguish self from non-self. Adaptive immunity develops over time and uses B and T cells as well as antibodies to launch an immune response. Innate immunity does not require stimulation by a specific antigen. It is non-specific, has no memory. Innate immunity involves macrophages, neutrophils, but not B cells and T cells (+3). Adaptive immunity is specific, has memory (higher 2nd response) and involves T and memory B cells (+3) 2. (6 points) What is an antigen? An antigen is an foreign molecule or particle that is recognized by the immune system. An epitope refers to a small segment of an antigen that is recognized by an antibody, T cell receptor or other recognition element of the immune system. +2 For an antigen is an foreign molecule or particle that is recognized +2 For recognition by the immune system. +2 For discussing how an antigen elicits an immune response
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Name Page 2 of 8 3. (6 points) What is phagocytosis? Is phagocytosis by macrophages important in innate immunity, or in adaptive immunity, or in both? Explain. cell-eating. is important to engulf/digest/destroy antigens in both types of immunity 4. (6 points) What is cDNA, and how would you produce cDNA from cultured cells? Genomic DNA contains an organism's entire genome whereas cDNA only contains transcribed portions of the genome. As a result, genomic DNA has exons and introns and cDNA contains only the exons, i.e. the coding regions. Genomic DNA is identical for all cells in an organism, but cDNA differs from cell to cell, based on what is expressed, i.e. transcribed and translated, as determined by cell function, environment, etc. Genomic DNA is produced in the nucleus and cDNA is produced from mRNA in the cytoplasm. To produce cDNA, you would isolate the mRNA from a cell on interest and use reverse transcriptase to convert that mRNA into DNA.
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This note was uploaded on 02/06/2012 for the course BENG 100 taught by Professor Marksaltzman during the Spring '08 term at Yale.

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midterm_exam_solutions - Name BENG 100b: Frontiers in...

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