Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 4 Interpretation (Comprehension), Memory and Cognitive Learning Interpretation (Comprehension) Refers to the Refers to the understanding that a understanding that a consumer develops about consumer develops about some attended stimulus in some attended stimulus in order to assign meaning. order to assign meaning. Information Processing Physical Characteristics of Message
JONATHAN LARSEN/DIADEM IMAGES/ALAMY Color Color Font Font Numbers Numbers Spacing Spacing Message Source Factors
Likeability Likeability Attractiveness Attractiveness Trustworthiness Trustworthiness Expertise Expertise CO U RT ES YO FG EIC OI NS UR AN CE , IN C . Learning and Memory
Learning is any change in the content or organization of longterm memory or behavior and is the result of information processing.
Attitudes Feelings Values Symbolic Meanings Learning
Tastes Preferences Behaviors Learning and Memory Memory Memory Sensory Memory Shortterm Memory (STM) a.k.a. working or workbench memory Longterm Memory (LTM) Memory
o o o o Unlimited Capacity Limited Duration Iconic Memory Echoic Storage Memory
o o o STM is Short Lived STM has Limited Capacity Elaborative Activities Occur in STM Memory
o o o o Mental Tagging Schemas (a.k.a. schematic memory) Associative Networks Rumination Memory
A Partial Schematic Memory for Mountain Dew Memory
Episodic memory may elicit fond Episodic memory may elicit fond childhood memories of playing childhood memories of playing cowboy. cowboy. Stetson is relying on the social Stetson is relying on the social schema or stereotype of the schema or stereotype of the cowboy to provide meaning. cowboy to provide meaning. Elaboration allows the consumer Elaboration allows the consumer to picture himself using the to picture himself using the cologne resulting in better recall. cologne resulting in better recall.
IMAG E CO URT ESY OF T HE A D VER T ISIN G ARC HIVE S Memory
Retrieval: Knowing versus Remembering Explicit memory Implicit memory Memory Cognitive Learning
Cognitive Learning Cognitive learning encompasses all the Cognitive learning mental activities of humans as they work to solve problems or cope with situations. Iconic Rote Learning Vicarious Learning/Modeling
Analytical Reasoning Learning and Involvement Highly involved Highly involved consumers tend to pay consumers tend to pay more attention to more attention to messages and exert more messages and exert more effort in comprehending effort in comprehending message. message. Learning Under High & Low Involvement
Shaping Can Be Used in Operant Conditioning Learning Under High & Low Involvement Learning to Generalize and Differentiate Stimulus discrimination or differentiation refers to the process of learning to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli. Stimulus generalization or ruboff effect Stimulus generalization or ruboff effect occurs when a response to one stimulus is elicited by a similar but distinct stimulus. Learning, Memory, Retrieval Strength of Learning Memory Interference Response Environment Learning, Memory, Retrieval
Memory interference occurs when consumers have difficulty retrieving a specific piece of information because other related information in memory gets in the way. Learning, Memory, Retrieval
What Can Marketers Do to Decrease Competitive Interference?
Avoid Competing Advertising Avoid Competing Advertising Strengthen Initial learning Strengthen Initial learning Reduce Similarity to Competing Ads Reduce Similarity to Competing Ads Provide External Retrieval Cues Provide External Retrieval Cues Learning, Memory, Retrieval
Response Environment Retrieval is also affected by the similarity of the retrieval (response) environment to the original learning environment and type of learning. Learning, Memory, Retrieval
Repetition Repetition Dual Dual Coding Coding Meaningful Meaningful Encoding Encoding Chunking Chunking These rely on making associations. These rely on making associations. ...
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- Spring '09
- memory longterm memory, Memory and Cognitive Learning, Memory Shortterm Memory