Week 1 Marketing defined ● Marketing definition: - Marketing is human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through exchange processes - Marketing is the activity , set of institutions 制度 , and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. ● Marketing creates value for customers and organisations ● Alternative marketing philosophies: The production philosophy – Focus on manufacturing efficiency 生产效率 The product philosophy – Focus on product design The selling philosophy – Focus on persuading people to buy The marketing philosophy – Focus on the customer – provide what they want The societal marketing philosophy – Focus on impact on all stakeholders, company, customer, society - Marketing philosophy/marketing concept : achieving organisational goals depends on determining the needs and wants of target markets, and delivering the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors. 确定目标市场的需求，比竞争对手更加高效地满足其需求 ● Modern marketing: McCarthy : four Ps of marketing: price, product, place, promotion ● Customer Value: what they get (benefits) relative to what they give up (costs/sacrifices) . Smith & Colgate Creation 好处： Functional / Instrumental Value 功能性 (utility of the product 物品的实用性 ) • Correct / accurate attributes 属性：颜色尺寸等 • Appropriate performances 是否在期望中 • Appropriate outcomes 是否完成其根本目的 Experiential / Hedonic Value 感受 • Sensory 感观 • Emotional 情感上 • Social / relational 与人相处 • Epistemic 授予 知识的：课本等 Symbolic / Expressive Value 标识性，向外界表现自己 • Self identity / worth 如代表社会地位 • Personal meaning 商品对个人具有意义，比如特别喜欢某种颜色 • Self expression 自我表现 • Social meaning • Conditional meaning 文化 (cultural) 意义的 坏处： Cost / Sacrifice Value • Economic (price) 比如：贵 • Psychological 精神上的，慎重选购物品时的烦恼情绪 • Personal investment 个人投入，花在去购物路途的时间／停车费用／排队
• Risk ：可能达不到预期 (expectation) Week 2 Key Marketing Terms Needs – States of felt deprivation 剥夺感 / 损失 ( 未得到满足的感受状态 ) （ gap between current state and desired state) (physical, social, self expression) Wants – The form taken by needs as they are shaped by culture and individual personality 与文化和个人性格有关 Demand – Wants that are backed by buying power 被购买能力支持的需求 Product - The thing that is available for exchange Exchange - The act of obtaining 获得 a desired object from someone by offering 提供 something in return – Restricted • Simple – two parties, reciprocal 互惠 – Generalised • More complex – three parties – Complex • Multiple parties, independent Origins 起源 of Marketing: Self sufficiency 自给自足 → Primitive communalism 原始的社群主义 ( 靠分享 )→ Simple barter 简单的物物交换→ Local markets → Money economy Transaction: A trade of values between two parties Market: A market is the set of all actual and potential buyers of a product. They share a particular need or want that can be satisfied through exchange.
Week 3 Marketing Environment 1. Definition - “Those conditions and influences impingeing 冲击 （ =impacting ， influencing ） or potentially impingeing on marketing.” 作者： Evans,M. 1988 - 为什么要学习 Environment 呢？ a. Must be continuously monitored
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