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Unformatted text preview: 2/7/12 transcript04.html Introduction to Ancient Greek Histor : Lec S 18, 2007<< I , P ofe o Donald Kagan: L , H .I A ar te. N , ' , , . Ar te G , , . S , , Iliad Odyssey, , , , .O T .F , , , , ; .H , , A .Y .T G , ; I .T , G , O , , H ' H ar te ' .T .W .S .S .S , , , , , , , ar te .A H , .H , , I' , , , .I , G e 4 T an c ip H , . .A , , ' H , anar, C I C .W , , ; G .T : , ' , -A , , I O , ' .B , , , , . .T , , , , ' . H .T , C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX12.309/ /transcript04.html 1/11 2/7/12 transcript04.html a e he c i ica e e e . A a ge c i , ea i g e i ba e e i ed. Tha i a ed ab . Agai , hi ab ed -- figh i h he G ee beca e he' had a figh ha ' ea , ca ' d ha . Y ' e bee ig ed b figh ." N b d a ha . Wha he a i , "Oh ea e, e b d a , "A e ha a , he ha b e hi deb ; he' Ee b d ha a h e he e a e he e beca e he ca ea b h he ea h ha ca be a e f a defea ed ci g ha c e i h ch deed . I' e a ead d he f e e i h fa e d i g i h fa e, a d he a e he ch c i ica . i e i age, e i e ci , e i e egi , ha Achi e , he he ef e d ha he' i h Aga e , b d a , "Wai a i e ci b hi e edi i figh a d ' eg eed Achi e , d hi ." B e f i g hi deb he c i ." a be a d he a be he e, ha he ,b e e ei a , he i d f fa e a d ab Achi e ha i g he ch ice f i i g ice f dea h a d fa e. Tha , I hi , i e Tha a i de, ha i f ie , e e af e he d f H e i g e, e ai a e e f i f e ce he G ee h gh he e f hei hi , ha ha e b i i ha cie a i he e c f ic . Af e a , e e he e he e eed c i ie i hich i e f a he a i e ha h a bei g d . S , d hi he ha e e a egia ce he . The d , b he a ha e a a egia ce hei fa iie a d he e e , hich, i H e , e d ed i a e, a d e he e i a e e i hich he c f ic i e ea . If a he b e i H e , Achi e he he i hd a a d ef e figh f he a , b d ca e hi d he i e. He ha a igh d ha b ha ea ha e hi g i g a d i ' e c ea ha he ha bee e c e b age a d he i beha i g i he e ib e a -- ha e e a G ee he i ed a d he ha b gh bac a, a i i i hich e e ca a , e , e , ' e a g ea he a d 'e f i d. E e Achi e gi e hi age, a d he a -e e be he a P ia b hi Hec , e hi g he d ha e ef ed d i hi age. S , e e Achi e ha g c e e i h he c i , i de be i i g i a e ife, a d hi c f ic be ee hi fa i a d i a e de i e a d eed , a d h e f he c i i be cha ac e i ic e g f he G ee a f ife f he e f i hi , a a i eci e he a e f b i i be he e. C e i i , agai , i ea i g i head. I ' a he f fc e i i , he c e i i be ee he e ce f a e , he c i a a ge e he i di id a a d he fa i . Thi i d f e i d e ' a e hi g c ea ; he e a e ab e, a d e e b d fi i a ige h e. I i ea a , ha i he igh hi g, ha i he g hi g. A f ha c ea e c f i , b e , b a , c f ic , e i , c e i i , a h e hi g c ea e a deg ee f f eed hich d e ' e i he ica de ic i d f c e hich cha ac e i e a a f he h a e e ie ce ha e i he ea hi f he h a ace. S ,I a he a i hich hi a f hi i g had a i ac he f e, a d f c e I' ea i g ab he f e f We e ci ii a i hich a he hei hi adi i . I e i ed a ead , a i e, ha i a a he e a e a i d f a bib e. I i he ce f a edge a d i d ha a b d h a hi g ,a dh he e e ed f ac ica e a he he S a a ade a deci i ab h ed Sa a i ba ed ha i aid i he I iad, b i ' a i a ea i e h h e e i i ed he i agi a i f G ee f he e f hei hi . A he fac i ha e a e d ha he A e a de he G ea e c e he Pe ia E i e, a d a fa a he a c ce ed, c e e e hi g he c d each, he ca ied i h hi a c f he I iad hich i i a eged he de hi i . Thi i a be he c ide ha b i he da ee i e be c dice a he a e da , b c ha ie a f ace. I d ' i e h A e a aged i b ha ' ha he a , b he i ci e i e ab i hed. I a c ea , he a a he Achi e i hi e e , a d i a f hi achie e he g ea deed ha I ha e bee e i i g. C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX12.309/ /transcript04.html 2/11 2/7/12 transcript04.html No , if o look a he o of We e n ci ili a ion, i p o ide a e in e e ing con a i hin i and he, I'm o , he G eek e pe ience ha I'm alking abo no ba ed pon ha o ee in Home , p o ide a con a i hin a compe i ion o he o he g ea adi ion of We e n ci ili a ion, hich i he J deo-Ch i ian adi ion. I j an o make a fe mall poin ha indica e ho ha o k . The Iliad begin -- he fi o d in he Iliad i he acc a i e no n, m nin, a h, ange . I am inging abo he a h, he ange Achille hich b o gh o man men o hei doom, i ha Home a . The fi hing i he emo ion of an indi id al man. The Odyssey begin e en mo e ikingl i h he o d andra, he acc a i e of an r, he acc a i e ca e of a man, and he a , ing o me godde abo ha man, ha man of man de ice , ha cle e man Od e . The Aeneid of Vi gil ba ed, of co e, on he Iliad and he Odyssey, begin arma virumque cano, I ing of a m and he man, he man Aenea . Wha a e he G eek alking abo ? I'm alking abo indi id al men, e ao dina men and he e en ha eme ge f om hem and he life he lead. Well, look a o Bible. I begin - hi ill be ne o mo of o ; in he beginning God c ea ed he hea en and he Ea h and i . The book goe igh on o alk abo God, ha he doe , ome ime h he doe i , ha i he effec of ha he doe , b he cen e of o book i God, no man. I ' no j an acciden ha hi e eal he cha ac e i ic of each one of he e c l e . The G eek had a h mani ic o look on life. The belie ed in he god , he e e eligio people, b he co e of hei li e a haped b h man hing in a a diffe en f om ha a e of he Heb e and he Ch i ian la e on, ha i a Di ine ie . The ec la app oach i e , e G eek e a eligio app oach. The G eek ie , mo eo e , p e ppo e ha man li e in ocie . He i no a c ea e off b him elf. B defini ion, he nece a il li e in ocie . He i concei able o he G eek onl in a ocie . The Iliad, hich i abo a a , immedia el i a kind of an a ificial ocie p oge he fo he p po e of defea ing he T ojan and aking hei ci . A I' e gge ed o o , he al e ha a e he mo impo an a e comm ni al e . Tha i o a , he e a d of good beha io i he admi a ion and he hono ha a he o ge , and he mo e io p ni hmen he can ffe i o be hamed in f on of ha comm ni . A i o le, i ing la e in he G eek adi ion, b ill po e f ll infl enced b he e kind of idea , peak abo man a a-- he G eek o d a e a politicon zoon, and I hink he be a o nde and i i o hink of i a meaning, man i a c ea e ho li e in a polis, in a ci a e, in a G eek kind of a ci a e. In he ame gene al pa age he a , a man ho i b na e i ho a polis i ei he mo e o le han a man. Wha he mean b ha i , if a man i pe io o he polis doe n' need a polis, he i a god beca e men need a polis. If he i benea h he polis i mean he' benea h ha i i o a h man being, and ha ell o j ho po en i hi concep of a comm ni fo he G eek and i eme ge in i o n a f om he Iliad in he Odyssey. Od e al o a offe ed an oppo ni o li e fo e e . When he a hip ecked on he i land in hich he godde Cal p o led, he fell in lo e i h Od e , j a he fa e of g ea he oe -- he a e he oic and hand ome, and fa and omen lo e hem. She a , j a i h me and I-- o ill li e fo e e and all ill be ell and he a , ell, o ' e a e bea if l gi l and I enjo o a lo , b I go o go back o I haca. No , h doe he ha e o go back o I haca? Well, he ha a ife hom he lo e , Penelope, and he ha a on hom he ha ba el een beca e he had o go off o T o almo 20 ea ago o figh ha ba le and he ha n' been home ince. Tho e a e e po e f l p ll ha e ea il do nde and, b i ' al o e ha he i he king in I haca, and hen he e n o I haca he immedia el mo e in o a po i ion of hono and e pec , hich i a c i ical pa of hi o n en e of him elf, of ha he need o be ha he an o be. We don' ha e in Ame ican ocie an Iliad, an Odyssey, e don' ha e o o n bible, b I hink Ma k T ain' H ck Finn i eall e , e e ealing o ee ha i o diffe en abo in he mode n ime f om he Home ic C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX12.309/ /transcript04.html 3/11 2/7/12 transcript04.html .W , ' -- H , , , ; .I , ?H , .T ' , polis, ' B , ?W , G A ,E .W G .W , A .S , , ' ' . A , .H , , , ,R , E .T .M , G G .W , .W .W , .L . , , .O ?T ' , .T G .P , , , N W G , E , , .E G ?I , ?T ?Y ' , .E .T I , .W , .I' , , , , , . , , .F .I H , ?H .T .T .S , , , I muthos, , -, , .A , " , " G , 4/11 .T , .W G ' E , , ' , .N E , , , .I , , , , , AG G , ,I , .H .W , W I , , I R , N I' O , H , -, , G , G , M , I G , Od sse , ' , nomoi C , nomoi, , , , . N , J -C G C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX12.309/ /transcript04.html 2/7/12 transcript04.html .I .I , E J T G .T , .W , .A , , J -C , , , .S , -C . .W .I , , , , G .T ,I ' , , .T , , I' J , .S , .T G , J -C , . , .S .O .I , , . ,I ; .H , ' .H .H ; , -' , , , , , , /transcript04.html .T C G .T , .I hybris, ,I , , , .A , , A , , ?H Ate, , W , , , .H , , , , ' ' ' , , hybris, , , Nemesis, G .O ' , S ' ' , Oedipus the King, , , , , .H ' , .A ; ; , hybris .I .A , S , ' , .H , O , , , . , at , , G , , .O , .T .M 5/11 C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX12.309/ 2/7/12 transcript04.html wonderfully great important thing for the Greeks. You must act in moderation. They don't ask you to just be humble and throw yourself on the ground and consider yourself as nothing compared to the god, or the gods. Be a man, be proud of what you should be proud of, but don't go beyond limit of what is human, because if you do terrible things will come. Seek fame, we all want that, and I'll say more about that, but you can't push it too far, there has to be some kind of a reasonable human limit to what you do. So, here is this problem. A typically Greek problem is where there is a contradiction that you've got to live with; you can't resolve. If you want to seek the fullness of a human experience, you have to try to be the best possible man, the greatest possible man to compete successfully against others and to achieve fame, glory, and recognition. But if you push it too far you will anger the gods and something terrible will happen to you. So, it seems to me, that Western civilization, ever since, has been a composite of these two traditions. But there is no way to put them together, and so Western civilization is an ambiguous society with a war always ragging within the soul of Western civilization and it's never perfectly clear which of the two approaches to life is the better one. I don't know whether any of you have ever thought about this, and anything like this way. But if you contemplate your own way of thinking about what you're supposed to be doing with your life. I think you will find some combination, if you're sort of typical, but that combination doesn't ever have to be fifty-fifty, and I'm sure it very rarely is. More typically, one aspect of the culture dominates rather than the other. But the shifts in place and time, and in many I would say, throughout most human beings, there is a consciousness of both. They both have some attraction and one has to grapple with that. So, a part of you wants to become the greatest whatever it is that you want to become and you wouldn't be here if you weren't very competitive and very eager to come out first, devoted to ar te and your own version of that kind of thing. Yet, it's very easy to say to you that's not a good thing to do. What you should try to do is to be humble. You should be like what Jesus suggests in the Sermon on the Mount. Your soul is in deep danger if you indeed continue to lead the life that you have mainly been leading up to now, and those two things are in conflict. I don't care if you ever go to church, that is no longer confined to a religious organization. It floats around in Western civilization all the time. They're aspects of demand for performance at the highest level, and at the time there is a great deal of blaming people for pursuing such things instead of humility. That's Western civilization, friends, and the Greeks are at the root of the whole thing. So now, let me turn to my next topic, which is to leave the world of Homer behind us and to begin to tell the story of how it was that the characteristic unit of Greek civilization, the polis came into being out of the Dark Ages about which we've said a little bit. Let me say a little bit, first of all, about the way scholars have categorized the history of Greece. Typically, we speak of the Bronze Age, the Mycenaean Period and so on, followed by the Dark Ages, but after that, you started having refined terms which derive actually from the world of the history of art. That is because in the Dark Ages we don't have any writing. So, if you want to designate anything it has to be by tangible things like pottery, particularly painted pottery, because it's easier to categorize. It's from that most of our terms show up. So, for instance, you will see references to words like proto-geometric. They'll be sort of post-Mycenaean then proto-geometric. These would be the very earliest kinds of pots that have geometric designs on them, then comes the geometric period and the orientalizing period; all of these refer to pottery styles. Then next we come to a larger period, which is referred to as the Archaic Period, the Archaic vis- -vis the Classical Period, which is the central subject of people's interest in the Greeks to begin with and later on they studied its surrounding periods. This Archaic Period is roughly speaking about 750 B.C. to 500 B.C. Why this period as a unit? What makes it a unit? Well, it's around 750, a great number of the changes that moved the C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX12.309/ /transcript04.html 6/11 2/7/12 transcript04.html G , P P I D D E A W A , ' .S , P D A -, .W , , P P ' , ,I , poli 500 ' W , W . .T , 500 , ' A 499 B.C. .A P M G , I , I , O , A , .I , , , , .I G , H .S , .I' G , S .I , .Y , I ' S S G P -H S .T poli ' 776 B.C. T .W ' , G O , poli G , H H .S , .M P G ' . M ,I , -- , T .I , I , .I -- H ' .I , G -.H .I H , . , G I , , I , P ' G , .H , , W S S .W , , , ?T , , S , , G G .T I' .S G 750' , , G , T B , .S , A G ,M .T G G , M ,S , 750' I S .I N , , .O . I .T , , , E G C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX12.309/ /transcript04.html 7/11 2/7/12 transcript04.html .M G H G .T .H ,I G , , , .A , , polis. T G , . polis .I H G , , , , .O , ,I , , , L I H , , B , A , .A .B , M .T ' .B . S G ,T polis." S , polis? I , ." B politicon oon, I' .I .T , , , polis. T polis. M , ' . B polis M , , , C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX12.309/ M , Politics , .S , ' .L , , .T polis B.C. , .P U, , ' polis , ." I ," ?D , , K , , , , , ,A polis, , ," G ?W , ' polis. A .L Politics , polis , , , :" , polis, . I , polis, , , ' , ' .T P ' , /transcript04.html .J polis, , I P P -, .T , P , 8/11 , polis, polis -- ' .W , P G A 2/7/12 transcript04.html .I .B D S S .I' poli . R .T T G B , P , , ' . W , T , , ; R F poli G S I ' ; , S , ' , , .L , A .S , , I .W , poli . , - , . ' , , , polei , , A , M , .O A .S , polei . A .T , .I poli , .T , , A , M , .O .A , ' W .W , A A , poli W poli , A , A , , , .U A , ?A polei , A .S , M 1,000 .T 1,500, ?W , , ' I , ; , R polei . S .Y ' , . ?W ,A P ' poli . A , 5,000 .P , poli 5,040 . W 5,040, ?T ?T ' I .I I ' .B , ' poli . .H .T , 125,000 , I ?S , A A I .H A .N , ' , , ; ?O .W ' , 5,000 A 40,000 poli ; 50,000. I ' A .A .T ' , I' , /transcript04.html 300,000. B C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX12.309/ 9/11 2/7/12 transcript04.html that most poleis, if ou're thinking about 1,000 or more poleis would have been well under 5,000 adult male citi ens. So, I just wanted to give ou an idea of just how small most of these places are as well as indicating sharp departures. Oka , now the polis from the beginning, and it never stopped being what I'm about to sa , chiefl agricultural communities. Most of the people, and I think it's reasonable to guess that a ver high majorit of the people would be living on farms, engaged in farming, feeding themselves, and the rest of the communit . Unlike the ancient near eastern cities, these towns do not grow up around a temple or a marketplace, confluence of rivers as the do in medieval Europe. No, the grow up like the Athenian does, right smack in the middle of a plain, which is a good place for farming, with a great high acropolis available. Even the characteristic thing in a polis, the agora, the marketplace, which also becomes the civic center of these towns, even these grew up later than the polis. The show up a centur or more t picall after we know that there is a polis there, and the agora comes about in a gradual wa . I think ou should never imagine in these real old poleis that got the thing started, that somebod said let's have a polis. Things just happened; the just grew up. One nice wa to think about it--here Athens is helpful. How man of ou ever been to Athens? Raise our hand. And the rest of ou, when ou go--on the north shore--north slope of the acropolis, be ond the agora, there is the area of Athens known as the Plaka. It's the oldest inhabited area in Athens, and there ou will find that unlike the more modern Athens, in which streets laid out at ninet -degree angles perfectl , it's a mess. The streets wind around and that's because the original streets followed the wa the cattle did their wandering, looking for food. These became the roads. So, I want to stress the sense of natural development, not some kind of a central authorit making a decision about an thing. It is also prett clear that for some after the foundation of the polis, there were no cit walls. These were not defended. Your farmland was not defended. If ou had a house outside the acropolis as ou would, it was not defended. What happened if the town was attacked, invaded? Ever bod who could ran up to the acropolis to defend themselves. So, that's how things were in the elementar phase. Now, there are Greek traditions that are taken seriousl b the Greeks that suggest that kings ruled these cities from the beginning and the have lists of kings with their names, and sometimes with stories attached to them. I think m self, that there were people who had the title basileus and the were noblemen and that the had some kind of a position of influence and authorit in the state, but as I think we have seen alread , the were not kings in the oriental sense and once we have a polis, it looks as though we don't have kings an longer in an shape, manner, or form. What the kind of regime that emerges along side the polis, is an aristocratic republic in which the noblemen have influence and power within the communit b tradition and the are plural. There is not one real king. There is t picall a council of aristocrats; that is the outfit that counts. Hesiod, whom I have not mentioned to ou before, a poet who we think to have lived around 700 B.C., ver earl in the histor of the polis, wrote one of his poems called, Works and Da s. This poem offers advice to farmers on how to live, but it also contains a stor in which Hesiod talks about himself and the quarrel he has with his brother over who inherits what from the father, and he claims he's been cheated out of his inheritance because his brother bribed the judges. Well, who are these judges? He calls them basileis, kings. These would have been these aristocratic figures who we know in the earliest da s of the polis. The were the judicial authorit basing that on their claim to divine descent on their, certainl , noble descent, and on the fact that the nobilit had a monopol of knowledge about what the traditions of the communit are. So, Hesiod complains about them and calls them bribe swallowing basileis, crooked ones, plural; kings as in Homer. It's also interesting that Athens has a ver clear tradition of thinking the had kings, and what I think is ver telling C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX12.309/ /transcript04.html 10/11 2/7/12 transcript04.html A .T , , , -.T sum re W , A , .K .T , C , , ?W ?B N ,I , W ' I polis, , .I polis, [ ] ' , ' ' -.T , . ?W , A , .C .Y .H C . I' re , I' R ,I , ' L re . A , , I' re , , R T S ,I (S ,L R .T .T R L .L , ) J .P C , Non C ' ' .T .T A , A , .W , ?O ,I ; , T .W ?G .I , ; Iliad ,I . ' Od sse , .W , . , , I , C , . .N C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX12.309/ /transcript04.html 11/11 ...
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