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Unformatted text preview: 2/7/12 transcript07.html Introduction to Ancient Greek Histor : Lec Se e be 27, 2007<< bac e 7 T an c ip P ofe o Donald Kagan: We ha e bee i g a he e i f he i e f he poli a d he a i ig ifica e e e ha e e a f he a i g f he poli , a d f c e I' e e ha i ed he i f hi e c a f e e, he fa e h i e ci i e , a bei g he c i ica e e e i ha i g he poli a d f e ha ' ha he poli i ab a i h a d he i de e cha ac e i ic c i e i h ha , a d e ha cha e ge ha e he ce ie . B , i agi e ha e a e i i g i he ea ea f a poli e i e i he eigh h ce B.C. Agai , I a e ha i e he e hi g ha I' e bee de c ibi g d ' ha e i e e ace a he a e i e a d he d ' e e ha e e e ace i he a e a , b e a e ch f i e he c ce a d he i d f cha ac e i ic I' e bee de c ibi g a ea ead a e he ace. B e f he a i hich e ca da e he i e he he poli ca e i bei g ha d i h he G ee adi i ab he e ab i h e f c ie h gh he Medi e a ea i habi ed b G ee , a d he ea ha he a e a c e i beca e e e i e e ee a c , ea a hi g a a ab i , i a ea e i i he f f a poli , hich ef gge ha ha a he ica cha ac e i ic e f ife ha had a ead bee e ab i hed f G ee bef e he e he c ie . S , ha ' he ch gica ig ifica ce f i . I h d a a f he e da e ha I i be gi i g ae e c bi a i f G ee adi i --a d he G ee da ed he e c ie e ecifica . Tha d be ha d be ie e, i ib e be ie e, I g e , if i e e ' ha he e da e e d be c fi ed i a ge e a a , i a ecific a , b he a chae gica di c e ie ha e fi d a he i e , he ea ie ace he e he e c ie ca e i bei g. S i ' ha c bi a i , a chae g G ee adi i ha ie behi d he da e f a ci . B h d ' a e he da e ha I gi e , he adi i a da e, a bei g fi . I ' a ge e a hi g; i ' a d ha i e i he be e ca ea a . The da e ha ' f ica f he ge e a he e fc iai c i g f he he ci ie f G eece i agai ha da e e ee a i g ab , 750 gh . B i fac , he ea ie da e acc di g G ee adi i , if e i c ec , a e hi g i e 773 he e he G ee da e he f da i f ha he h gh a he ea ie c he e e e ab i hed -- a ace ha he ca ed Pi haec a, hich i he i a d f I chia i he Ba f Na e . Tha ' he e fi ace he e he e i a adi i f a G ee c ha i g bee a ed. The e' e i ha he e a a G ee c he e a d a I a he a chae gica e ai c fi he ge e a i e f hi ha e i g. N , he fi e i I e, bef e I ge de c ibi g ha a c a a dh i ed, e a a he e i ha a i ha ed G ee ai a , ai e g ea di a ce f hei he ci ie . T ea e h e a d e ab i h a e ci f he e e e ace e e i be a e f g a ed. I he fi ace, b a d i he e ie h ce , I g e , h a bei g e ded a . The did ' e, e he e e d i e e. Tha a he a a hi g d gi e he cha ac e f ife, hich a ba ed fa i g, if ea e e fa , a d ba ed he diffic f a a i . I he G ee d e --I hi I ed e hi g f He i d ha c fi ed i . The G ee e e, e e h gh he e ea e , he e e e ified f he ea f e g d ea . Thei hi , hei b a ee e ea h; c e i he Medi e a ea e dde a d e ib ; a e ife i ha d he a e . S he he e' he h e idea-- e' e a ead gi e e e e ha he G ee e e a ce hi e . I ea , he ecia ca e f he dead a d he h gh ha he a b ied e e a d a e ib i a . S , ha I' a i g i , he ea e he ace eeb , ea e a ce a e . A f ha ea e eed e ai h he e f d ha he e d d i g, a d e ha e C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX11.085/ /transcript07.html 1/13 2/7/12 transcript07.html , I U S -.W , ?W , , ' .S , .R , O , , W , , G ?S poli , , B I ' ' .I , .T , , B C C S , .T -G O , -.A T ,I ' , I /transcript07.html . I , S ' .W , A ,A I , .W ' .I ,I .A G poli , , .I , , , , poli , ,I , . --I , , , , , , poli .S ? .T ? ' ' .O , , , G .W , ' -' I ?C . , .S , , , , , I 2/13 C .I' I ; C C .H -- ' ,I , .W .B , . C poli . T , .I .T , ; . ' ' C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX11.085/ 2/7/12 transcript07.html ' .S , M . ?F .B ' G , L , R S R .R ?S .H G , , , ' ' apoikiai , colonia , R .S , ' I ' , , O , , , apoikia, .T ' .C .A , .T G , -, .T ' , , , G ' , I E .S , ' ' colonia .S ,I , G . O , apoikia .H ; .S ,I , , A S , .N I B , , ,I ; , , .T , A G A ?G , , C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX11.085/ /transcript07.html , , ? oiki e ; , ' . , .W S , , .E ' , D G P .W ?B -' .T ,I , .G , , G 3/13 , G ' .H ' .H ,I I' , .W ? I' , oiki e . , -D omphalo , ' D .W .I' , M .T A , 2/7/12 transcript07.html making no sense to anybody, and then the priest would listen to this stuff and he would say, what Apollo said through the priestess here is, and he would give the message. Let me just take a moment to tell you about this. I say this now with great confidence but ten years ago this story, which all the Greeks agreed too, agreed upon in every respect, that the temple of Apollo was built right on top of this, and underneath the floor of the temple was this little room where the gases came up, where the priestess sat, where all of this came up. Well, archaeologists investigated this carefully, and the French School of Archaeology late in the nineteenth century dug everything up and concluded this was baloney; it was a myth. There were no gases coming up from any of this stuff, and so everybody believed for the next century, and then a young man who once sat in one of the chairs--not in this room maybe, but in which you're sitting, John Hale of the Yale Class of 1973, who is now an archaeologist at the University of Louisville. Having learned, or having agreed, let's say, with my prejudice, that the higher naivet must reign--and if the Greeks said it happened, you got to believe it happened, until you have to believe that it didn't happen. And so he decided to investigate this and he took with him a fine geologist from Wesleyan just to go to the place there at Delphi and to see whether it could be true that such gases did come out, and what sort of gases they were, and what consequences they would have, and you know I wouldn't be telling you this story if it hadn't turned out that they discovered evidence that, in my judgment, but I don't think really anybody doubts it anymore, that totally confirmed the Greek story. They tell you precisely what the gases were, what the characteristics of those gases were, and it squared beautifully with all details that we heard about the Delphic Oracle. So, here's just one more case where Yale helped to straighten out the world, but you notice it wasn't done by a Yale faculty member, we engage in confusing the world, but our alumni do a much better job and that's what happened here. So, you go to the oracle and what do you ask the oracle? Well now, before we go any further--in your Herodotus readings and elsewhere, you will come across many a story in which an oracle is consulted and gives an answer. Well, the most famous early on, King Croesus of Lydia, the richest man in the world, you've heard all about him, decides it would be a nice thing to conquer the Persian Empire, his neighbor to the east. So, he goes to--he's a barbarian, but the barbarians came to the Delphic Oracle too, because you want to know what the gods want. So, he came and he asked. He said, "If I cross the Halys River, that's the boundary between Lydia and Persia, what will happen?" The oracle replied, "A great empire will be destroyed," and Croesus said, "Terrific that's what I have in mind." He invaded and he was clobbered, and then you read the splendid story Herodotus tells of how he was captured. He was up on a pyre, and he was going to be burned when he remembered Solon, the Greek, who had come to him and warned him about the vain glory, and he said, oh Solon, oh Solon. I guess Apollo must have then said, he's reached wisdom and so he sent a rainstorm to put the fire out and he lived through that. Well okay, the point is the oracle was wrong. No, of course not. We all know what was wrong with Croesus. He should have asked another question, which empire? But he didn't think of it; other times all kinds of funny stories are told about the oracle, which would suggest that it wasn't really a very reliable source of information, that it was filled with mythology and so on and so forth. But here is the hard headed fact. We know for sure Greeks and barbarians, and everybody came to Delphi, and when you came to Delphi and you were going to consult the oracle, it was hard, there were a lot of people, a long line, so there was a waiting issue. But also people used to bribe the priests, in order to get moved up on the front on line, and they would also give great and beautiful gifts to the temple people and to the temple, and to the priest. In other words, people spent a lot of money to consult the oracle. Now, ask yourself this, especially if you're talking about Greeks, are they going to keep shelling out money for an oracle that gives them answers that turn out to be wrong? No. C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX11.085/ /transcript07.html 4/13 2/7/12 transcript07.html M ' .T I S .T --I' , ?B N , .W M I' .T .O , , , , , . N , .Y .I' , ' ' .N , , D O , , , ' ' ,D , ' , ' S -' I' .I , I .I , .N , ; , , ' , ' , . oiki e , D O -, , , ' , ' .S poli . S ' . T , C H 776. S , , G G C , I P .S , S S , , , C , /transcript07.html , .T , , ' .B .S , .A G G , ' P -H N G .S , , M , S ; ' , S .F S .T 5/13 C P , O G P -H P -H ' , apoikia apoikia C S S , , . , D I , , C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX11.085/ 2/7/12 transcript07.html -poli , , B , .T ' ?I , apoikia, B - H .N , , K .T , ,H K apoikia . F , .I , . , , ,S B , , C .I T W .S .T C P C , ' , A ; .I .T C , I C .B , .W , F .F , , I .T P W .W , P , G , P .S , ' I C , ; ' C P C O , , .W ?T , C C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX11.085/ , , , , C , apoikia .T C ' , , , . , apoikia , ' .I .N , C I' .C , T C , . C .S ,C , ,C .A 664, .F C ' ,C , ' P W . .I I , , .W /transcript07.html , .S , ' , , , , C , T , A S P P , C , .T A I ' , , W , C ,I , , S -, ,T , , ' , 6/13 2/7/12 transcript07.html , .Y ' , S , .T , C .A ' , , .S , , ,C ' G , , , ?Y ' M .C ' , .M I .S C S , . .H , , , , S I .E ?Y ? , S den : I ? P ofe o Donald Kagan: T ' , , .I S den : W P ofe o Donald Kagan: P S den : [ ] -- , , ? [ [ ] ] .T .T .A .I , P ofe o Donald Kagan: I' .T B -. O G poli , M , , B.C., G -' I . C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX11.085/ , , -.B ,I .R , G ?L .E , , poli G M A G S A , ?T , /transcript07.html A M A G M , .S , , , 7/13 2/7/12 transcript07.html O A B M , M , S I .T , M .I , M , , G G I A .H A T , , poli , ; A .S A ' B A I M , D N , A ' S .J , A T , G G .Y , A G , G T S M I' ,B ,G B I' C , S T B A , , G W , ' A M , G ' . A S , /transcript07.html A A D .S . M ' .F G M , P I G G G T A G P S .I' G S P , .I ,G , G , E .F , .L ' , -S , ; ' ' ,S , .I ' T , , , eba o poli , A , D B , S .I , ' . , G .B I T , S , T A S , P , , .T A , ' S G T , A G ,S G . U T , .O -G , ; G K ,O , T G ?I T ?B S G , , C , G G .S T .S , A G M G .N , , 8/13 -?T ' ?A .N J G ,M ' , ' , , , C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX11.085/ 2/7/12 transcript07.html ha i Leba , S ia, he c a a ace he e, Pa e i e, he e a e beca e d i g he e i d e' e a i g ab h e egi e e cc ied b i d be hed a ide, a d b d d e e d ea f i g ha d cha e ge hei c f ha a ea. S he e a e G ee ci ie a Pa e i e. Y each Eg , a d f c e, Eg i e f he g ea e i e e ha , ce ai i he f h i e i , ib i he fif h, b ea f i . I ha bee c e ed b b he e e . If ' e a i g ab ha i ' --I hi i ' i he ha d , e , i i i he ha d f he A ia a d i he Pe ia . S ha i e i ha ca b id c ie ; ' eg G ee ci ie he e a d ha i ci ii ed ef e e h a e he a d b idi g ci ie ee c i g d a d a f a i i g i g bac i , a e f a i ed be, fa he ea 750 e hi g i e i i a e fa i he ha d f e f e ie dea i h. The e i e e ce i . I he i h ce , I hi i ' a d--i agi e a d 550 e hi g i e ha , he G ee e e a i g e c i he De a f he Nie f Eg a a ace ca ed Na c a i , a d he f ha d i hi . I i a c e e diffe e hi g f he apoikia ha I' e bee a i g ab . I i a adi g a d i ' he e b e i i f a d de he ec i f he Ki g f Eg , a d ha ' beca e he a --i ' ha d f hi ha e a e cha e e e f G ee f hi d b ie i h. S , ha ' a g ea e ce i e e hi g I' e bee a i g. G i g e , d be ie e, he ge i ha i Lib a, he e a a e i a G ee c f C e e a d ha h e egi a ca ed C e aica a d i a a G ee . Y ca ac a g , ha I ea i e ha Lib a i e ; i' ge a c ed e i . Y ca ee G ee a d R a e e he e e i. Whe g e ,h e e,i i he c a f N h Af ica-- he ea bei g he e f N h Af ica i d i a ed b Ca hage. Ca hage i a c f Ph e icia ci ie . Ph e icia a ca ed he e Leba i , a d i g e bac a be he e h ce , a be he i h, a d i a e f . I ied c N h Af ica, b he a e f he Medi e a ea i he e e i e . The Ca hagi ia , i fac , ha e a e f pied terre i he e e a f Sici a d he G ee i ha e figh he Ca hagi ia e he ea f c f he i a d f Sici . S , ha ' h fa ea he ge a d i i e he Ca hagi ia a c e i S ai a d he c e i f he S a i h c a c e Af ica. S , he e a e G ee he e. The ' e h f he a e ea . H e e , ce ge be d he Ca hagi ia ad a ce i S ai , he e a e G ee ci ie he c a f S ai a d he e c i e be G ee ci ie , e e he e, b i a a i F a ce f hich he i a a d fa i he e ha he R a ca ed Ma i ia, Ma ei e, a G ee . S i Nice a G ee . Nice a Ni ea, ic a d he e a e e e a he . S , he he e g , he Ri ie a, ace i e ha . N , ha ab he I a ia Ri ie a? Tha ' e if . We e he G ee c ie ea P fi he e c d i ? N . A d he ea a i he he a f I a , he e e e E ca , a he e f a cie e e h c hei a ea a d e e ab ha e a b d c i i g hei e i . H e e , he ee g i g h i I a , a R e, R a adi i a he ci a f ded i 754 753? 753. S , e e b d ag ee ab ha . Ce ai bef e ha . S , i he e i d e' e a i g ab he e a e R a ha ha e ab . S , h f R e he e i a e e d c iig f he I a . G ee ci ie a e a e he ace. S G ee a ha a ea ha he he R a d c e d i ae fI a a d f e agai he he egi he efe he h e he i f ha e i a a Magna Graecia, g ea G eece beca e he ' e a G ee d he e. The fi a , d eg Sici a d he e ha e he ea c a . I d a - hi d f he c a f he i a d f Sici i fi ed i h G ee . The hi d he e i de Ca hagi ia c . The i a d, he G ee d ' e i he e. The a i e Siciia i habi ha e i a d he G ee a e i e e ed. Y i fi d e a e f he ca e f a G ee ci , hich i f ded a a f he ea; he a a a ed be c e he ea f a ie ie C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX11.085/ /transcript07.html 9/13 2/7/12 transcript07.html . S , I -, , , .M M ' .O , B D . I G S A T W , B , , , .I' , , , , A .I .I A T I , . F S , .F , G G .I C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX11.085/ /transcript07.html 10/13 G , ' , .W , ,I A C , .L S , ,E E . .T A .T M .O , .W , ;C E ; , B.C. J I C , C , P .A S ,M , , ' I .S .W , ' .M , I' , . C , , .I , ' , .T , .S , ' , , , E , , , .S , .W , , I , , , .F . , ? .I C ,M , , S ? 2/7/12 transcript07.html .T , G , .I .I I T . ' , G G , I' S , I G ' G .N G , , G , , . T , ' , O , I' , , , .A G ' M , I , , .T C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX11.085/ /transcript07.html 11/13 .T I , G ' G ' , M ,I ' G I' ,M G M , G .A , , . , --, .W , ' .B , G , B.C. W , M ,E .A G E , . G G G , , G , , , .O , .N , G .T ' , , G ,I , ' . , .B , ' G ' .B , , , G , .I .T poli ? , , ' , 2/7/12 transcript07.html poli .S , , ' , ; ' M .M , .E , , . I ,I I' , , , ' , .A ; I , . Y ; F ,I , .O , , , , , . S ' , ,I , .W , .T A A , ' , .I , ,K /transcript07.html , , ' , , , , ' .Y , I' , , .M .Y , .T ' , I , ' , .N . I' ' , , ' G .S , 750. B B I' (A) ' I , ' .T , , .B , , ' , , , , . E G , . 12/13 , ' , .W , , .S . ; (B) ; .A , , , , A , C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX11.085/ 2/7/12 transcript07.html So, ha ' pa of he o of h Ame ica had he e l ck ea l hi o ha i had. So, I hink e ha e o nde and ha coloni a ion p o ided ome hing analogo o ha fo he G eek people. So no , he e e a e ome he e in he e en h cen , mo of he e place I' e been alking abo ha e been e led, he c en ha I ha e been de c ibing a e flo ing and he kind of p oblem he ha e gi e i e o ha ill be fel in mo of he o n and ha i he p ope in od c ion o he ne opic, hich I'll di c ne ea . No no --i eem like a ea , b i ' ne T e da ac all . [end of an c ip ] back o op C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX11.085/ /transcript07.html 13/13 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2012 for the course ECON 159 taught by Professor Benjaminpolak during the Fall '08 term at Yale.

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