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Unformatted text preview: 2/7/12 transcript11.html Introduction to Ancient Greek Histor : Lec O 11, 2007<< I C , , - , , .A ' 621 D R G .T G .B , G , , , ' O .T , C D .J , , , , , S T L , D , N .I , ; /transcript11.html e 11 T an c ip coup d' tat M polis , .S , , C , , .T , P ofe o Donald Kagan: I , A Dracon. .P ' G , , .A , , , . , , .B , , .T ' , C , D ; , .N , M B.C., , .T G .F C . .A , 1/13 ' .O , , ' .T , polis, ' ' , ' , , , , , . D A C N E .I , D . P , C H C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX09.525/ 2/7/12 transcript11.html , , -.T I A A A S ; , . T D H A A , , S , H M , A B A .S , A I .H , ' A ,I , . T I .A , , S S , . C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX09.525/ /transcript11.html 2/13 , ' .S , ' , ' . , ' A S S , A .I' A , A A poli , S ,I A , B .A S , , , .B , G A , A M , ,A apoichia I ' ' , S , . I M S . , , I .S , G I' G ' , I' I A , ,S , , ' , -, , , A , G S S , .W , ' , , S ' G , .T G S ' .I , 2/7/12 transcript11.html N , ha bec e a a e , a a e e a i e he hi g ha b gh S he f e, i ha A he i c ea ffe i g a e e i i e a b e a e ge he e ea . B he a , he adi i a da e f S ' a i e a e archon i he e ea i 594 B.C. Agai , e d ' ha e a e ha i e a b i e e' e ea a i g ab he e begi i g f he i h ce . He e' he ic e a i i de ic ed b S hi e f i hi e , b a i he f He d a d he a e i e . The c i i i i ac e f a e he ha e f A he ia h ha e bee e a ed. S e f he ha e bee e a ed a d i e i A ica a a e , b e f he ha e bee d ab ad, a d S e ha e f he ha e bee ab ad g he ha e f g e he A he ia a g age. S ha e ha e ha e a ic e i hich hi be i e f e d a i . We ha e i agi e i ' a ea a c e f ge e a i d i de f ha a e a e e. B i eache i ea a d he i e I' a i g ab . A d i ' hi ha --h did he ge be a e ? Thi i a ca e he e e e ha e a a bee a e . The e a e e e h e e b gh f e he e e e a a e . The e a e e e h eec e ed a d ade a e b he c e . The e a e A he ia ci i e h ed be f ee a d ha e bec e a e , a d he a e h he beca e a e i h gh deb . Pe e e e b ig e a d b i faii g a i bac , a d a a ce ai i he c d ' b e he ba i f e hi g he c d ffe a a e f he a . If he had a d, i d ha e bee g e b . If he had ab e d c ab e e i ha d ha e bee g e. A he had ef gi e a he e a d bab , I ha e e hi f ie d , b ea i i ea i , bab he fi hi g he did a gi e hei chid e a a e f he a a d he he a a e, he chid e beca e a e f he e h had ea he e a da e i , bab hi e e ha e ed g he e e , ha a fficie be f e e had bee e a ed a c ea e a e ge e a be . The i ha a a f di ec a e , he e e ific i e . The e ha he G ee ed f ch a ha e a g ed ab ha d e hi ea e e e e ia ha ec e a d he e i a b d h a hi g ab ha ' e i h ha he ga e a a , beca e he did i a ca e, he e e i h e e e f da e ed he deb . A he a ec f hi hi g a ha gage i c ibed i a d aced e he fie d e e i dica i e f he We , ch a ha e a had a fa a ha ee a i fac e, ba ed he , Vic Ha , ca e d de a d fa e a d I i e hi i e h ha ed. a a he f f fa i g b e e e ha ed hi a he hek emoroi, hich ea e i h e ,a d . The e e e e e h had bee fa i deb ha he i did he ee e i h did he ee fi e i h? I hi ib e a fa i e hi ea i e i c d ' ha e bee e ha ' a e e gh. The d ' ha e bee ab e a a i e. B a ha ec e de he c f he e e h he he a d ha e e gaged i effec e e h b a e ha had he he i. The e e ca ed horoi a d eei g he horoi ca e ed a i if f he fa e , h had fa e i deb d i g hi e i d. ic i e i g fig e h hi ca e ab , a d I e e f d a hi g i g a he ce eadi g e e' i e e a i i ce agai he ad a d he' a fa e . I ' a a i g h ch ha he he eai fh hi g g ha a , e e gi e a ic d f Re e be he e i e a e i e f da e a fg h f fa i g i , g h f fa i g e . Pe e a e a i g a i i g a ea , fa a d ha he c d e e ha e ade a i i g bef e, beca e he ' e ea ed h g he i e a d g i e a d a e i e i a d a e i e, a d he ha e ec ai ed a d, hich had bee ef f fa i g i he a a d ha ' h he g i b e, beca e f e hi g fa e C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX09.525/ /transcript11.html 3/13 2/7/12 transcript11.html ' .I , .B , ; ' , , .A .I ' , H .N ' , .W , ' , P ' ' .H ' , H .A .H , , A , , , .I H , , , .S , .S , . , .I . T , ' T ; , A . A A S .V , A B , , , , S .A , I T A , A A I W S S C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX09.525/ /transcript11.html . , ' ,I ' M C , , , . .S , A a chon .N , , , , a chon hip ' A , 4/13 , .O .H , , ,A .B ' , , , ?N , I , , , ' ' C , - a chon , , .I G . ' . 2/7/12 transcript11.html ho e led hing fo hem. So, i ' an idea ha came ob io l na all o he G eek , b e o gh o ecogni e ha an e ao dina hing i eall i . The cho e Solon. Wh did he choo e Solon? He ob io l a ep ed o ha e he kind of cha ac e i ic hich o ld make him a compe en , in elligen , i e, fai pe on o do hi kind of hing. He had achie ed fame, no o ie b hi mili a ac i i . He had led in he a again he Mega ian and had fo gh e ell and i a o of ha mili a achie emen ha he became ell kno n, and hen hi o he cha ac e i ic ob io l e e al o ell kno n. If o ead hi poem , o eali e he a a man ho kne ho o e p e him elf and o pe ade o he of ha he had in mind and ha hi app oach a one ha a pop la . We ho ld keep in mind ha ' going on he e. Fi of all, e a e old he a a man-- e ha e con adic o o ie and I hink I can nde and ho he con adic ion a o e. One o a he a a nobleman coming f om e emel famo impo an ance o . The o he peak of him a a man of he middle ank, hich doe n' eall o k o i h ha . I hink he be e plana ion I can come p i h ha , i ha he ndo b edl a a pe on of noble bi h. In ha kind of ocie , onl ch a pe on a likel o be looked o fo a po i ion of leade hip. B I hink ha ma ha e pe aded folk -- ell, he al o co ldn' ha e been fab lo l eal h , b ce ainl he a no a poo man. B I hink ha con inced people ha he a of he middle ank a ha hi me age and he p opaganda ha he en o in hi poem , and indeed, he cha ac e of he efo m ha he p opo ed e e e m ch mode a e. Tha ' he o d ha came o be he one o m ch admi ed, and fa o ed, and o gh b he G eek people. Keep in mind hi i he pe iod in G eek hi o hen he Delphic O acle ha come o he heigh of i infl ence in he G eek o ld and in he o nding o ld a ell. The O acle of Apollo a Delphi a he mo famo place ha a p ing fo a d he idea of mode a ion. The G eek o d i sophros ne, elf con ol and mode a ion. Yo emembe he me age a he Delphic O acle, "kno h elf," meaning don' imagine ha o a e mo e han a man, b ha o a e me el a man and don' do an hing in e ce . Mode a ion i ha ho ld be o gh . G eek ne e opped o hipping a he h ine of mode a ion fo he e of hei hi o . A c nical man a he G eek e e o in lo e i h mode a ion, beca e i a o a e among hem, b I hink i ' a e among all of . So, he e a Solon ho a he poke man of ha e po e f l mode of hinking ha a pe ading he G eek o ld a he ime, and no do b he ga e i a g ea ep fo a d i h he hing ha he did and he hing ha he aid. Oka , le ' look a a fe of he hing ha he did. I'm picking o hing ha I'm p e e eall e e Solonian; he e e e o he ha a e a ib ed o him ha a e mo e deba able. B he mo ba ic p oblem i ha a e e going o do i h he e people ho a e lo ing hei p ope , ha e lo hei p ope , ha e lo hei f eedom, ha ' o be done abo ha ag ic l al p oblem e' e been alking abo ? So, Solon in od ced he mea e hich i called in G eek, he seisachtheia. Fo na el , o ha e i on o comp e and o ' e all copied i do n and aken i o cla . So, o can d he e hing , igh ? Tha mea e aboli hed all deb ha e e ba ed on he bod of he pe on, ha i , he e gi en a he bod of he bo o e . An deb ha a o inc ed a aboli hed, cancelled. On he o he hand, he e a no gene al cancella ion of deb . In o he o d , an no mal deb ha didn' ha e ha cha ac e i ic con in ed. Ano he hing ha he poo and he nhapp o ld ha e liked, he o ld ha e liked gene al cancella ion of he deb . I ho ld poin o , hene e o ha e lo e cla di con en in he G eek o ld he e a e o hing ha he picall a ked fo . One i aboli ion of deb , beca e he ' e al a in deb and he econd hing i edi ib ion of he land. No , edi ib ion of he land mean ci il a . Nobod i going o allo hi land o be aken a a f om him and gi en o omebod el e i ho a figh , and o if o go fo ha , ha o ' e going o ha e o do i o ha e a med fo ce o achie e i . And o ' e going o end p i h a C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX09.525/ /transcript11.html 5/13 2/7/12 transcript11.html , S , , , ' .I , , -, .I ' .S , , ,S , . , , A ; ' , ' . ' , .F A , , , ' A , , .T , .B , , , , , , . , ' . .T , ' S , , ' A I .W .T ' , I .I , .T , , , , I C A A P I' I A G , , W A P P ' A B , .N . O , , , ' A C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX09.525/ /transcript11.html , A , , , , .S , ' S , ,P .I A , , S . A .H E A .A , , . ' , , ' ' , A .A ?T A ; I ' I .B , , 6/13 2/7/12 transcript11.html -, , A . --I' .T .I , -, , .T .T A . ;S , S , A , .B A , G me oikoi , A -E .O , , .W A , A , .A , , ; .S , A .S A ; , A poli A .B , , .T ' , poli ' , ; .O G polei ' ; , A A A B S ; ' A O , , , . .B A ' A S A W , ' .I A .U , S , U , S ' .H .J C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX09.525/ , , A , .B . , ' A , A , , .A -7/13 ' , ; ' .N , .S ,S .B S . .T , .N -- . /transcript11.html 2/7/12 transcript11.html , medimnoi A 500 medimnoi , , .S ' -.S , , pentakosiomedimnoi, ' S .I .B , ' 500, hippeis 300 eugitai, , . , 500 S .H .T -.T , .P , 300 . , S , .T , , T 200 .T O , 200 thetes .I A pentakosiomedimnoi. -.N .T .T G ' .B I , 400, thetes ; G , .N .I , I ' ,I , ; heliaia .I ' , A , G I .I , ' ekklesia G , .I , I .T eugitai, , I eugitai ' ; , pentakosiomedimnoi I , .O boule. S , boule , hippeis, , , , -- , ,S . T , ekklesia I' , , S .Y .N , , , .A , thetes S ' .S , , heliaia, , , , . ' , A , I , A Heliaia, , thetes. T S --I A , I .A .R .N , , , .B ' /transcript11.html , . 8/13 C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX09.525/ 2/7/12 transcript11.html Thi co --he e' he a i o ked. E e ea A henian co ld ol n ee o be en olled in he panel ha o ld p od ce he co of he heliaia, and a n mbe of A henian on hi panel a i ho and, and hen on an occa ion hen he e had o be an ac al co ca e, hen he membe , people on he en olled li -- he e o ld be ome a of picking he n mbe o needed fo he j . We kno ho i o ked in he Cla ical Pe iod, b e can' be e i o ked he ame a in Solon' ime. B in he Cla ical Pe iod, he e complica ed a of choo ing j o , hich a allo men , b ch a onde f ll complica ed allo men de ice, ha i g a an eed ha nobod o ld kno ho a going o i on a pa ic la j n il he alked in o he oom and began o hea he ca e and ha a o a oid co p ion of a j . So, he he ha em a in pla o no , and I don' hink i a in he de ail in Solon' ime, he idea ho ld be clea . The e hing a e eall going o be nfi able and o dina A henian a e going o be he one ho a e making he deci ion . La e , heo e ician of poli ic of democ ac o ld fi on ha a he ingle mo impo an ep o a d he democ ac ha he A henian o ld l ima el each, b b no mean o ld Solon' con i ion, if i had been p in o effec , ha e amo n ed o a ho o gh going democ ac . Ye , he adi ion al a a he e ha Solon had done ome hing democ a ic, beca e a o go in o he fo h cen , people looking back i ho an eal good kno ledge of ha en on back in ho e da , ome of hem li ed Solon a he fo nde of democ ac . B i ' al o e ha he gene al nde anding a no ong abo hi , beca e he e a he ame adi ion a he ame ime, ha i a n' he ame kind of democ ac e ha e no in he fif h cen . I a le democ a ic; and I hink ho e adi ion e e co ec b mode a ion again i he e ample of ha I'm alking abo . Well, b illian , ma elo Solon a o cle e he eali ed ha hen o ' e mode a e, he onde f l achie emen of a mode a e pe on i ha e e bod i di a i fied, beca e he g on ha end a e nhapp and he g ha a e on ha end a e nhapp , and o he kne ha he e o ld immedia el be effo o o e h o ha he had done. So, one of hi ip la ion a ha he A henian o ld ha e o lea e hi la nchanged fo en ea , and he al o kne ha hi o n life o ld be e emel ncomfo able hanging a o nd A hen hile e e bod came and aid, ha he hell did o do Solon? So, he lef o n and en on hi a el fo en ea af e ha . Well, i a ed him a lo of g ief, b i didn' a e hi legi la ion, beca e he e a emendo ife in A hen af e he ea of Solon' a chon hip, indeed, ome hing e embling chao I hink. The e e echnicall ea of ana ch ; ha i o a , he e a o m ch di p e and conflic in A hen ha he e e nable o elec he nine a chon , j ea i h no a chon , no name fo he ea , ha a ho e io he conflic a . Wha eme ge in o eco d abo ha a happening i ha locali m, egionali m a e po e f l in A ica and i a egionali m ha a a la ge pa of he p oblem in hi pe iod. Impo an fig e in he a i oc ac f om diffe en pa of A ica, each o gh o make him elf he dominan fo ce in A henian ocie , and o b ing abo change ha e e a i fac o o hem, b he an in o he fac ha he had compe i ion. To make i mo e complica ed, i a n' e en a nice one again one hing. The e e e h ee fac ion ha e e iden ified b he G eek , b he A henian and he all ggled one again he o he . Le ' a i h he egional cha ac e of he e place . One ch egion a called, he people in ha fac ion--le me back p. The egion a called pe alia and he people ho e e in he fac ion e e called pe alioi. Mode n chola iden if he pe alia i h he o he n ip of A ica, a ing ome di ance p f om S ni m on he e coa ca ing a li le bi a o nd o he ea coa , and ha a a egion ha a domina ed b ha famil I men ioned o o ea lie , he famil ha a held e pon ible fo he killing of he ppo e of C lon, ha famil e e he Alcmaeonidae and hei leading fig e, a he momen e' e alking abo , a a man called Megacle , ho a one of he compe i o fo he leading po i ion in A ica. Acco ding o he ancien i e of C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX09.525/ /transcript11.html 9/13 2/7/12 transcript11.html the fourth centur , ver hard to know how much the reall knew about it, it's a matter of speculation, but an wa what the sa is these people wanted a middling moderate constitution. The were probabl ver close to tr ing to retain the Solonian legislation. Another faction were called the pediakoi and the represented the middling part of Attica, which is in fact, the ver best land in Attica where grain and wheat especiall , were growable and the richest people had their land. Their leader was a man named L curgus and the represented the old aristocrac more than an other group, and would have undoubtedl if the had had their wa , just undone the Solonian laws, and gone back to the old da s. The favored some kind of oligarchic regime. Then the third group lived in the region called diakrioi and the were called diakrioi. Sometimes some of our sources sa h perakrioi; I'll come back to that in just a moment. Well, I might as well tell ou about it now. It is identified with the region on the east coast of Attica, which was called the Diakria, but wh the might have been called h perakrioi is that there was some mountains between central Attica and the Diakria, which meant h perakrioi means be ond the mountains and that would have been a geographical description of the region. The leader of this faction was a man called Peisistratus who was a nobleman, an aristocrat; all of them were, but his famil had come from the Peloponnesus back in the ears of the great migration, following the fall of the M cenaean world and that shows ou that the Athenians had brought into their bosoms at that time, and made full citi ens all aristocrats and leading people, some people from outside of Attica. Now, it was hundreds of ears later and Peisistratus arose as the leader of that place and of those people. Now, he's going to be ver important; we need to sa a few more words about him. In the quarrel about what shall be done Peisistratus and his group were the most radical. The represented the views of the poorest people in Attica and pressed for solutions of the kind that the would like. He, himself, had arisen to power in the usual wa . He had been a great soldier and had won great victories for the Athenians and was deepl honored for that reason, and we'll hear more from him. Ancient writers speak of him as the most demotic, the most popular, the most democratic, if ou will. So, here are the three factions with their local places, with their policies presumabl , and their different leaders all struggling for power and sufficientl equal in strength, so that nobod could come out on top. Out of this, and b the wa , when Solon comes home and the situation is as unsatisfactor as I've described, Solon becomes particularl worried about Peisistratus whom he has spotted as potential t rant, and he goes out and he warns the people against Peisistratus, but the fact of the matter is, he fails and his warnings and his predictions turn out to be accurate, as Peisistratus does bring about t rann in Athens for the stretch of time that he and his sons will dominate the place. He was engaged in that war against Megara and was the number one hero in that war. He was wounded and when he came back he said that he was in danger from his enemies who were going to tr to kill him and he asked the people to suppl him with a bod guard. The did so, and he prett quickl took the opportunit to use his bod guard to sei e the Acropolis and made himself boss of Athens. For a five- ear stretch from about 561 to 556, he was able to rule Athens. We know ver little about the details of that period, but he was a proper t rant one wa or another. Then the two factions that were defeated managed to get their heads together to plot and to overthrow the t rann to drive Peisistratus out. So out, he goes. For a period of time he goes abroad, wanders around, meets with other important people, goes to see other t rants, and becomes friendl with other t rants. And he finds one wa or another to make a lot of mone , and to get ver rich. This is important because he is able to use this mone for hiring mercenar soldiers, which will pla a large part in his restoration, but not the first restoration. That comes about, because the two factions that had gotten together to drive him out, had b now come to quarrel with one another, and so taking advantage of their dissent, he made a deal with one of the C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX09.525/ /transcript11.html 10/13 2/7/12 transcript11.html . I M P , M .S , , I .T P P A M I P , ? N , , , ,I , .H I B , A , M E M P O .H ' B .I C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX09.525/ /transcript11.html M ?W , , L A .H , P --I M , .W , ; -' .T .N , , ' P , A .W , A henian Con i A ion . ,A , A .W , , ' , ?S , P , , , A .W , .B P .W -?W M , . ' , ' .I' .I .W ,M , P , , E P , ' E .I .A ' , , , .T , A A , ' ' , , I' , , , .A , .N , A , , . , G , .I P M , .S , P -E A , , ' , A A , A , . .I , 11/13 , , .H , A , . 2/7/12 transcript11.html A poli ico , . I , .B A P S .T .I ,I , I H I , .H , ' ; ' , ' .S ,P ' A ; ; M a chon , ,P , ' ' poli A ' ' , , 400 , , G ' .W ' I , , P .T .W , , ' .I .W .T , . .T , . , ' ' , ' , A , .W , .O .O P . F .Y , .O .W , a chon M , . , A A , P O P , a chon C A , I A P A , , , , . S , , , , , N , , I' .B I .H , .T , , A ' , , , A ' , ; .I C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX09.525/ /transcript11.html , H , S , ?Y , .B S ' , .T ' , ' ' , . , .B , ' , .B 12/13 2/7/12 transcript11.html Pei i a e ha e he f g ea diffe e ce i a d h di g be ee e , e big a d e a d e , e a a d e a d h e h a da a , d ci g he b e . N hi g S did di ec affec ed ha i a i , b he e ge i he fif h ce , he e ide ce i e he i g ha e ha e ha I e f ea ie , a d f edi , de a e fa i - i ed fa , e big fa , b he e a e ha a e cha ac e i ic f he ace. We , h did ha ha e ? Whe did ha ha e ? M g e i bab Pei i a b gh ha ab , a d if , i d ha e bee i a he ea h he had b gh ai , e a ab e a i . The a cie ce d e ha a g he hi g ha he did a e d e fa e . Tha i , he d gi e e e d e fa e h eeded i he he eeded i , hich a fc e e f he i e c a bef e he a fa e f A ica. S , i h he e he b ed, he c d b e a d, a d a e hei fa e e fc d a ff deb ha he ed he e e, a d he c d d he hi g ha he e a d cceed, a e , b he e i e he eed: i e e e , i e e e , a d i . The a f a i g f i ee , i e ee . A f he e hi g c d ha e bee a f he fh ag ic e ca e be cce f af e he i e f he a , a he had bee bef e. N ega i e hi g ha I' e b d i ed. Pei i a i i ed he fi eg a di ec a ha e A he ia hi . A fi e e ce a a ha a d ced f he a d a d ha e e a d i ade hi ea h , b a ided hi i h he e he eeded be hi g d fe bee de c ibi g. ai i g. The fa e ha e c d e hei A he ia , he e' e fi Pei i a , ha I ha e S , i a a i ed hi i ica e a d hi a i . T a aid d a e . Ta e a e e ide ce f a , a d a ha . Tha ' a he ic e e ge . A i e e hi , e da Pei i a a a ei g a d he c ide f A ica, a I g e he e i e did, a d he e he e fM H e , fa f he ci f A he . Y ca g he e da , he i f a b d fa i g ha ai i a i c edib e, hi g c d ib g M H e , b i ' bee def e ed b ha i e. S a a ,i a i . I ea , ai a e g ea ace f fa , a ha e iced. S a a , he g e hi fa e a d he a , "Sa fa e ha d g fa ?" The fa e , ha e i agi e a g a ed d ea , a d g a i g, "O fa I g c a d Pei i a i e c e hi fi e e ce ." We , ha did Pei i a a , ff i h hi head e d hi he ? He aid, e , a e ' a c e i e fe . I he eb dec a e fa e e f a e f e e , a d i beca e a fa hi g he a f ee fa . I h i a B a i e e c c edia; ha i i bei g d. S , g a e ecia i d f a he e. We' he e f hi eig a d ha f hi e i e. [e d f a c i ] bac C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX09.525/ /transcript11.html 13/13 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2012 for the course ECON 159 taught by Professor Benjaminpolak during the Fall '08 term at Yale.

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