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Unformatted text preview: 2/7/12 transcript13.html Introduction to Ancient Greek Histor : Lec
October 23, 2007<< back e 13 T an c ip P ofe o Donald Kagan: The period in which the Greek polei were left essentially to their own devices came to an end with the clash between the Persian Empire and some of the Greek city states, but which came to involve Athens at the famous Battle of Marathon in 490, and I'd like to tell you today about the rise of the Persian Empire, and its conflict with the Greeks, and concluding with the account of that battle. First, some terminology. The Persians were what the Greeks called them and that was appropriate. They were very close cousins of the people, who lived right next to them or among them, called the Medes. In fact, the Medes were the first of that group--I guess we could call them Aryan peoples. Again, that's a term that has been abused throughout the nineteenth and twentieth century, as though it was a racial group. The term is a linguistic one, and they spoke a branch of the Indo-European family of languages, which is designated as Aryan, and that's all that that really means, but they're very, very close. In fact, the Greeks really couldn't distinguish between the Persians and the Medes, and so they called them sometimes Medes, and sometimes Persians. It really doesn't matter because, although the Medes took the lead in forming a national kingdom out of a tribal society and were the first to be the dominant family on the Iranian plateau where these people finally settled down, the Persians then overthrew them and established themselves as the ruling group in that family under Cyrus the Great, as he was called back probably in 559. He was called Cyrus the Great, because he was a great conqueror, first making his tribal associates the Persians, the dominant force in Iran and then expanding the extent and the power of what we can now call the Persian Empire, an extraordinary distance. If we look at the end of the lifetime of Cyrus, one man's lifetime, is when this extraordinary expansion, much of it, most of it, takes place. If you look at the Near East in the year 550 B.C. what you find is the Kingdom of Medea, the Kingdom of Babylonia, which is the most powerful one in the Tigris Euphrates Valley, what is now Iraq, the Kingdom of Lydia occupying sort of the western portion of Asia Minor, excluding at first the coast, which was occupied by Greeks, but which the Lydians then conquered the Greeks in the 540s--that's the picture. Then there is the people of Persia, the Persians themselves who are of not much account. But when Cyrus becomes King in 559 he is a member of the dynasty which is the Achaemenid Dynasty, and he conquers his fellow Aryans, the Medes in about 550, and very swiftly conquers Babylonia, Armenia, Syria, Cappadocia, which is another kingdom in central Asia Minor, and has already expanded this kingdom to something pretty much unexampled up to that time. Now, meanwhile in Lydia, the dynasty that began back in the seventh century, finds that the King Croesus is the monarch at that point. You will have remembered, of course, that Herodotus' first book pretty much begins its story with King Croesus, and his decision to attack the Persian Empire which is now on his frontier. You all remember the story that Herodotus tells so charmingly the story of how Croesus decides he wants to conquer the Persian Empire, consults the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi to see how he's going to make out; the oracle gives a characteristically enigmatic answer, but he doesn't recognize the enigma. He says, "What will happen if I cross the Halys River," that's the boundary between Lydia and the Persian territory. The oracle answers, "A great empire will be destroyed," and of course he had in mind, destroying the Persian Empire. Instead the Persians destroyed his empire, and of course, that shows you you've got to ask the right question and keep answering it until you get an answer you understand. Well, Croesus attacks in 547; his capital of Sardis falls into the hands of
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/transcript13.html 2/7/12 transcript13.html Herodotus sort of sings an aria at this point about the wonders of freedom, in which he says the Athenians were no better than any other Greeks at warfare before they became free. But once having liberated themselves from tyranny and establishing this new Cleisthenic regime, they were able to defeat all of their opponents, and so much for Herodotus' prejudice, but of course as you read his history, you will realize that in one sense at least the history of Herodotus is a paean to the wonders of freedom and the greatness of freedom, and the centrality of freedom as the story of the Greeks. By the way, he also praises not just freedom, ele he ia is the Greek word, but in the case of Athens he praises its i ego ia. That word really means equality of speech. He characterizes this new Cleisthenic regime not by the word democracy, which is apparently not really been coined yet, but rather as what characterizes it, is that all citizens are free, equally able to address the populous in the assembly, and thereby to take an active role in their own government. So he's really praising autonomy, self government, not merely freedom from an alien people, but freedom within the city for all the people to govern themselves. He thinks that's one of the reasons why the Athenians have become so good at warfare, because of these changes. Now, a new coalition emerges, also hostile to this new Athenian regime; it includes Athens' old enemy the island of Aegina, which sits in the Saronic Gulf, right opposite the Athenian coast and, as I say they, have been fighting each other now for more than a century, and quarreling about this and that. So, the Aeginetans join with the Spartans and now they are openly attempting to destroy this regime and to replace it with a return to the tyranny of Hippeis. Hippeis has also fled to the Persians and is protected by the king, so that, if the Persians get involved, they too will want to put Hippeis on the throne in Athens, but the Spartans want to do the same thing, and again the Corinthians will have none of that because of their attitude towards tyranny. Now, threatened even more severely, the Athenians send a second mission to Persia, and this time the Persian king makes it very clear that will require that the Athenians to put down their newly established democracy and restore Hippeis to his tyranny in Athens, which would make Athens like the other Greek city states, the ones that are on the coast of Asia Minor, part of the Persian Empire, and Hippeis in his relationship to Persia would be the a ap of the great king governing his own city, which was, I think, commonly what was happening in Asia Minor on the Greek coast too. That's where we are when the Ionian rebellion breaks out in the year 499. The start comes in the city of Miletus, which was of course a leading city of the Greeks of that area for some long time, a place you will remember that was filled with new ideas where we first hear about the kinds of quasi scientific, but in any case, rationalistic revolution that challenges the traditional Greek way of thinking based largely on mythology and on theology, with pure reason. I don't want to suggest that the Milesian philosophers were without religion. I'm simply saying they're introducing something new that stands on the side of religion, and when it comes to their attempt to explain what they are trying to explain, the physical universe for the most part--it really does put aside religious concepts and replace them with observation and reason as the way to do things. So, what we are seeing of course in Miletus is the birth of philosophy at the same time as we are seeing the birth of natural science, and these do not get separated until many, many, many years later on; they are together. That's the city where the rebellion starts. It has nothing to do with philosophers; it has to do with the tyrant of Miletus, a Milesian by the name of Aristagoras, who gets into trouble with the great king. He has talked the great king into an expedition that he wanted to launch against the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. He says Naxos is a cinch; it's a nice fat place. They're not ready, and if we sail now secretly, I'll be able to quickly take the island, and the great king will have another expansion of his empire, and of course Aristagoras would benefit both financially, and also by the presumed honor that he would gain from the great king.
C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX09.550/ /transcript13.html 4/15 2/7/12 transcript13.html U N P , , .H , G , . A , M .A N G , . .N A , A , ,M A ' . ' G , I ' A I .S .I ' A , I' , , S , T , I I B A , I P , G ; S K C ' ' ." H A S ?" A G ' ?H S , C , ' ' .A E , , , H P S P , "I' , C , S , "S , S , ; , A W ,A A , , A ' , I A , S , P I' I ,G , , , ?" H .C E P , "W , I , "H , , ." H . "Y , ' M P ." H , "H , "T ." ." T , .S ,A i ae ' , .C .S , A D ; S ,A ; ' A ' --I A M , .A , S , , , I' C S ' , ' ; , .A , ,C ' , . .T P P S .S , .T ' , A
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/transcript13.html C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX09.550/ 2/7/12 transcript13.html o e o end a flee and oldie o a i Mile come back o ha he end in a momen . and he o he ci ie in hei ebellion and he end-- ell, I'll He odo decide i ' ime o make a poin ; he a , hi ho ho m ch ea ie i i o decei e man people, a he han one, beca e b hi co n i ha go o be ong; he e e e 30,000 A henian ho e e in ol ed in hi deci ion. Tha ' ce ainl fa oo man , and he e e fooled b A i ago a , he ea , King Cleomene , he one man a no . Ho e e ha ma be, ha he A henian o ed a o end en hip . No , ome chola o ld ha e aid, onl 20 hip . The "onl " i eall , I hink, a mi ake. The a e led o ha b kno ing ha la e in he fif h cen he A henian ill end p ha ing 400 i eme , b ha ' man ea la e , ha ' af e a ic o o e he Pe ian . Tha ' in a o all ne o ld. Be g e I o ld ha e no i ha all he hip he A henian had e e ma be fif . So, ending en a no a i ial con ib ion. Wh did he do i ? Well, fo all he ea on I' e gge ed, he ca e abo he Ionian . The a e hei ela i e in hei o n mind. Mo eo e , he a e no e f iendl o Pe ia af e he e change he ha e had i h he g ea king in hich i ' clea he onl a o deal i h he g ea king i o become hi bjec , ome hing he ' e no eage o do. Ano he hing ha e need o ake in o acco n i ha he A henian , emembe a lea back o he ime of Solon and po ibl befo e, ha e been inc ea ingl engaged in ade i h he ea , ha i o a , i h A ia Mino , i h he Helle pon , Sea of Ma ma a, he Bo po , be ond ha in o he Black Sea; in o he o d , in o e i o bo de ing on he Pe ian o ha he ha e o feel ha if he Pe ian a e nf iendl o if he Pe ian j do ha come na all o hem, he oon ma be in e fe ing i h hing ha e need, e inc ea ingl need. The A henian ill be inc ea ingl dependen on g ain and fi h f om ho e a e . So, all of ha can e plain h he A henian a e illing o ake hi eno mo l i k deci ion hen he Spa an , of co e, o ldn' hink of doing i . He odo ha hi onde f l ph a e o de c ibe he A henian deci ion. The e hip e e he beginning of e il o he G eek and he ba ba ian . I g e ha he' eall a ing i , he e e ha e he beginning of he Pe ian Wa , m bjec . The Ionian ebellion i one hing, heo e icall , if he A henian had minded hei o n b ine and no a i ed he ebel , hen he e need no ha e been a Pe ian Wa . Hea en kno ha o ld ha e come ne . B in an ca e, I hink He odo i a ing once he A henian decided o pa icipa e, a i he ebellion of hei ela i e in Ionia, hi a he beginning of he Pe ian Wa fo A hen . Well, he en A henian hip land in Mile and hei oldie ma ch inland e if l , and each he ci of Sa di , hich i he capi al of he Sa ap of L dia, hich no a Pe ian p o ince, and a e cce f l in defea ing he fo ce ha come o again hem and e fi e o he ci of Sa di . So, he ' e done eal ha m. Ha ing done ha he A henian --fo gi e me, I lef o a mall b impo an poin . The A henian e e joined b a fe hip p o ided b he ci of E e ia, ano he o n in no he n E boea, an old ime i al and enem of-- ha ' ha o he o n p he e? I j men ioned i a momen ago; i ' gone igh o of m head. Chalci , hank o e m ch. The ' e old enemie of Chalci and ha ma acco n fo h he a e eage o help he A henian , beca e he A henian ha e defea ed Chalci and a e keeping he Chalcidean do n; in an ca e he do. A fe E e ian , en hip of A henian accompli h hi deed of doing con ide able ha m o he g ea king' po i ion he e in L dia. Well no , he Pe ian la nch a ho o gh going e pedi ion, i h he in en ion of bd ing hei Ionian bjec and b inging hem back o bj ga ion. Well, i ' no all ha ea . Thi ebellion ake place in 499; he a again Pe ia doe n' end n il 494. Wha he Pe ian a e doing i la ing iege o he ci ie one b one, and aking hem one b one, and hen a acking f om he ea and ha a c i ical. If he co ld defea he flee of he
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/transcript13.html 20,000 25,000 , .S , D . P A M . I' , .O P P A . P T , Y H .T , I ' K ' ' H .H , ,M , ' ; ' A XIV , ' H H .I , .S N , P ?T P .T , .T ' ' I N . A D .T Z H .S , G , G , E ,
10/15 , E ' J , , P .I , N , .S , ' , N A , A .T D ; . , T P T E C . N , 4,000 A , , , C ; , P C C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX09.550/ 2/7/12 transcript13.html T 4,000 A .I .H A , , H ' , A ,I E , .W ?W ,I , A H -A . A E E .I , , ' , , .O , , , H A A , .T , ' , M .W .T A H ,I , ' , , , . P ; , ' .S , .W ; A M , A A .W .B ' P . O A ; ' '.I A E , M A , .W A , ; ' , ; , M ' M .T I' .I .T , ' , I .T ' , H A E ' .S ?W , , , ' , A ' ' . T A ,I .B , S , A 4 , , P 490 , N . S P , . S S A .T , P .B A ; , ' ; , , , P , ; ' , .T S , H , C , A I P S , , 11 , 12 , , .I' , P , .I ' ?O . I' , , .I , ' . A .T A '
/transcript13.html P ?A ' S B A , .B S .N M , .T ,
11/15 ,H , A .Y ' I ' .T C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX09.550/ 2/7/12 transcript13.html , .A . S A .N , .I ' , , A , P . T P ' P , .S , de facto P O , G .Y ar te, , . S , , M I , .T ' , .Y P M ' M .S , , 25,000 P .H P .T , ; ' .T G
/transcript13.html , A ; A I I P , A , , , .B , .T , A P , .M ; ' , B M , , . ' P I ' , , .T ' S M , P .I P , .H I ' ' , , ; ' , .H , , , .I' .Y ' , , , H ' , , ; I P 25,000 .T , P G 10,000 G , .N P A ' , M P , . , 9,000 A , 1,000 E .T .I' , , .T .S , , -12/15 C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX09.550/ 2/7/12 transcript13.html he e e ha e mo n ain . Thi a line indica e he line of he mo n ain . He e o ha e a eall fla plain, b he e o ha e mo n ain , and ome he e p on he hill he e he e a he G eek camp nea he mode n ch ch of S . Deme i . Thi li le do eflec he mo nd he e he dead, he G eek dead a Ma a hon ill af e he ba le be b ied, and ha i likel o be abo he place he e he main figh ing ook place, hich help o place he e he ac al ba le ook place, o he idea of he A henian a o o hold hem he e a long a he co ld. The G eek ha e he ppe hill, he Pe ian a e do n belo . If he Pe ian an o a a figh , hen he ill ha e o come nning p he hill. Well, ha i no a e a ac i e p opo i ion and o he G eek feel, le hem come fo . I ' o co n . So, he ' e i ing he e. The ' e go o do ome hing; e don' . Mean hile, he Pe ian a e ai ing fo ea on, o ha he ci ill be ende ed o hem. A eek goe b i h he o ide looking a each o he and doing no hing. I al a like o compa e he A henian a eg o an old fa hioned foo ball a eg , hich I ha en' een done no in decade , hich ed o be kick on fi do n and ai fo a f mble. In o he o d , gi e he ball o he Pe ian and le hem make a mi ake. I hink ha ' ha a in Mil iade mind. Well finall , ime pa e , and he Pe ian eali e e can' i he e fo e e . Fo one hing he ' e going o n o of food and a e , fo ano he hing, he g ea king ill an o hea ome hing. Well, ho did o do? Wha did o do? We a he e and a ched he A henian ; no good. So, he plan ha he Pe ian made, I hink a hi , ha he o ld ake--le a fo he ake of a g men , 10,000 oop , p hem on he hip , load p he ca al on o he hip oo and end ho e hip a o nd A ica o come p o Phale on Ba aigh in o A hen , and mean hile ake he 15,000 ha a e lef , ma ch hem p a clo e a o co ld ge o he G eek and fi he G eek he e, o ha he can' go back and defend A hen . So, he e' no a m o p o ec A hen . So if ho e g ge off he hip , come ailing in o he ha bo , alk p o o n, i ' hei . If he A henian a e c a eno gh, f om he Pe ian poin of ie , o come nning do n he hill o alking do n he hill o ha e e o be o n mbe ed h ee o o b --and an a e' e Pe ian e al a bea G eek , e' e go no hing o o abo , hen le hem do i . So he come. No , Mil iade i in cha ge on he da of he ba le. He' go he p oblem ha he ha e 5,000 mo e oop han he ha . He' o ied abo being o flanked. So, ha he decide o do i o eaken he dep h of hi line beca e he m co e he leng h of he Pe ian line. Well, he dange i h ha i , of co e, ha hen he hi each o he he Pe ian ill b eak h o gh he G eek line. So, in ead of making i e en, he loaded p he ing and lef he cen e e en eake han i o ld o he i e ha e been. Hi hope and a eg a ha he A henian o ld in on he ing befo e he Pe ian co ld b eak h o gh he middle and hen he A henian co ld n on he cen e of he Pe ian and defea hem, and j ba el ha ' ha happened. The Pe ian did b eak h o gh he cen e b he e e oo la e. B ha ime he G eek ing, he A henian ing e e cce f l and d o e he Pe ian befo e hem, he Pe ian an a a like mad, b he an in o he g ea amp and ha made hei e cape m ch mo e diffic l . So, he A henian e e able o kill g ea n mbe of hem, and finall ha ba le a o e . No , he ba le a o e , le ' imagine ha i ook a co ple of ho ha o ld be a long ime. The A henian had ime no o ha e a meal, ake a li le e , and ma ch back ac o o A ica befo e he hip co ld ge he e, and I like o imagine he cene hen i all happened. The Pe ian coming a o nd he la bend of he ba a he come in o Phale on, e pec ing o ee a nice emp beach and eeing he A henian a m . I like o imagine i h hei lef foo in he b eake , and hei hield and pea p i h he n gleaming off hei hield and blinding he Pe ian a he came. A hich poin , o can' fo ce a landing again an a m ; i j can' be done in he ancien o ld. The e g had o go home and a
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