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Unformatted text preview: 2/7/12 transcript15.html Introduction to Ancient Greek Histor : Lec O 30, 2007<< , D , , P . S I , T G T .I T A A , , G .W . T , T , , . I A A .W G ,I , T /transcript15.html e 15 T an c ip A E E , , , .T , A P ofe o Donald Kagan: O 469, L .I P P B .S , , T A .I , , S A I , .T T .B . S R ennea-hodoi, Amphipoli . , .T A T , , ' , A A , T , A A .G , , M A P , 465 A , -.S T T , .T , ' A .T A T , .W , A T .A .I T .T 1/13 , , , , , ' I A C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX08.837/ 2/7/12 transcript15.html . O , , . H D , "I ,A .I , .S ." S , D A A H A .I .T ." N , ' T D , .C , ." S ,T , , A , S ,T , ' D , , , D .T ,I .L A N P , , W , I I , /transcript15.html , ,T D S , .F , , . , "N , , , , A , "F , , , D -.I , A .I T .O .B P L , A M 440-439 S , ,L ' ,C , S .S , D L , G A .T G 2/13 ' T , .F , A A .W , D , , A . , , A , W , , A , , .I .T ' , , , ' ' ' , ' . C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX08.837/ 2/7/12 transcript15.html G A A I .T , , P W .A ,S ,T S S , . , , S I G .I A , 479, T S C ' , ? W , ?I .S , C ' ' A A ; , B , A .B , , T , , T T S A D A T M , P D L W .H /transcript15.html , , G .B I .T C , , .T .H , . , M , A , ' . A , T L T ' C C , ; ' 3/13 A ' C ,I A , .I W E W , W , , , , T , ,T S , , , T .I P ,I , ,I , P , .A , . , , .H , C , , W , , , ' .H M , C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX08.837/ 2/7/12 transcript15.html .H ' , .H , .I' E , , .H .S , A ,C , , S , A A , , S H , S .B , I , .N , . . I' , , E , , C , .E , , , . S S , A P .S , P , A S .I E .I ,E . , A .I A I , 479 462; ' A , . I , , .C -S -; A A S S S P , , ' , , A ; , I , I E , , ,I A P P E H . W , ' W . W ,C - , A .R , , .S C H -S , T A , , , ' S S , P , , , , ' A S .H P A G W G . C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX08.837/ /transcript15.html 4/13 2/7/12 transcript15.html Some pa of he fac ha he Spa an did no objec o he de elopmen in he Aegean and ac o he Aegean in hich A hen mo ed f om being me el he leade of he coali ion o becoming an impe ial po e , onge e e da . The Spa an didn' do a hing abo i in ho e ea l ea . Wh no ? I hink a majo ea on a beca e Cimon a he dominan fig e in A hen . The ed Cimon; he kne ha o long a he a in ha po i ion he o ld no be a menace o Spa a and ha he co ld indeed li e ide b ide in hi a . I a a e ch of ime fif een, e en een, ome hing like ha ea , hich a peacef l and a I a p obabl o ld no ha e been i ho he phenomenon of he in e nal de elopmen in A hen i elf. Cimon al o--hi con ol of A henian affai b i e of hi pe onal anding and hi pe a i e abili ie a e al o p i ing. Ma a hon a a ic o fo hopli e . I a he fa me , he middling g o p, and ho e abo e hem ha had on ha ba le, b Salami a a ic o fo he poo in A hen . Of co e ha a flee a ode b poo A henian , and no he had he glo fo he ic o and, of co e, af e he a , hen he flee became he ba i of A henian eng h and glo , i a he common man and he poo e of he A henian , ho a in ol ed in achie ing ha de i able a . So, o o ld ha e ho gh , and if Themi ocle had been in con ol, I'm e he o ld ha e been igh ha he e o ld be a mo emen o a d g ea e democ a i a ion of he a e. Remembe he e e a e befo e he a begin i Clei henic democ ac , hich i p e m ch a hopli e democ ac , hich e cl de he poo f om man of he ac i i ie of he a e. Cimon an again ha . He ne e ied o n a el A henian democ ac . He a no an enem of A henian democ ac ; he a in fa o of keeping i he a i a and in ome a ac all olling back ome deg ee of democ ac . The a i a ome ha olled back a ha --and no b an legal po i ion, legal ac ion, b a he b o of he a e en en fo a d. A i o le in he Con i ion of he A henian de c ibe he e ch of ime ha I'm alking abo , abo 479 o 462, a he pe iod of he A eopagi e ' con i ion. Wha ha mean i he old a i oc a ic co ncil, con i ing of fo me op magi a e , gained nofficial, info mal, b e eal po e . Schola ha e had a ha d ime nde anding e ac l ha i a ha a he na e of ha po e , b i look a ho gh a co ple of elemen e e ce ainl he e and he e e e c i ical. Tha i , he A eopag , i a aid, o of egained he o e igh of magi a e . The e e, a in he a i oc a ic pa , in he po i ion of being able o c i ici e magi a e and o ake ac ion again hem, if he ac ed in a a ha he A eopag did no app o e. I al o eem e pla ible ha e en ho gh he e con in ed o be a co ncil of fi e h nd ed, hich a con in ing o f nc ion a i had, e e ince he Clei henic Con i ion had e abli hed i , he fac i ha mo e and mo e he A eopag a aking deci ion abo fo eign polic , a p ing o he a embl hen he de i ed mo ion , he e e ping ome of he po e of he fi e h nd ed. The e e no doing hi , a I keep a ing, b an change of he la . The e e doing i , beca e he ho gh he co ld, and he people accep ed i . One ea on fo i , acco ding o A i o le, i ha he had pla ed a pa ic la l he oic ole in he Pe ian Wa a he momen hen he Pe ian in aded A ica, and he A henian e e fo ced o flee hei home , and o go o Salami , and o he Peloponne o e cape fo ha momen . No , he poo had no he e i hal o keep hem el e ali e hen he en in o e ile in hi a , and o he A eopagi e ed hei o n mone o keep he poo ali e and in good condi ion d ing ha pe iod of ime. The ol n ee ed ha ac ion, and ha gene o i and pa io i m, and good ill allo ed he de elopmen of hi A eopagi e Con i ion in he ea ha came, and ha ' ha Cimon I hink eall had in mind. He an ed o ha e hi o of d al polic of con e a i e, mode a e democ ac . Con e a i e in ha i did no ake an ecogni ion of he changing ci c m ance ha o ld ha e gi en he poo a be e claim o poli ical po e and C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX08.837/ /transcript15.html 5/13 2/7/12 transcript15.html G P C R , .H .T ' C , A , .H ,IA , ' , .T .S , C .T ' I' C E , X W ,X -- ' T , de fac o C C H A Y ' M M C . E .I R /transcript15.html , W , ' .S ; ' . ' -- ' A , ' ' , . R , , , po e a , R .W , , C T .C R . , T ' E .T .T , E E , , , -S A , , .S R , , P , C C -, , , L , ' ,I , , ; , ' .T ' P , , W ' . .H . T , , K .W , , ' , , M ?H , , , ' M , ' , , C ' M ' .H ; .H ' . . , ; ' .B 6/13 C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX08.837/ 2/7/12 transcript15.html ' C C .S , ' C C .I' . E .I , , A ' ,A .A , , .T A ' , ' ; I , .H ; , , P , ' , . E A , .T , T T R . P .T .T S , S , P L , A A S S , G A P ; .A ,A ;G . -.H P S .C P M E .T M , , , P S , , S /transcript15.html 464 S , , , A , .T ' S A , A . , I' , G I' T , L . P , C , . H ,G S .T , ; E E .A --T S , A W . .W , A , 7/13 A , , .T ' Life f Ci , , ' ' , .T S A ,X C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX08.837/ 2/7/12 transcript15.html then ver soon after that the Spartans went to the Athenians and said, thank ou ver much for our contribution, we have no further need of our services, have a nice trip home. Instead of being ver grateful and happ that the didn't have to fight an more, the Athenians were insulted. None of the other allies was asked to leave; none of the others were gone. The Athenians clearl had been sent awa not out of friendl reasons, and Thuc dides tells us what was on the mind of the Spartans who made these decisions. The had developed a fear of the Athenian soldiers who were in the Peloponnesus. T picall , Spartans don't get to see or know an bod else. The onl time the ever get to see foreigners is if the happen to be fighting side b side briefl . But now ou can imagine the scene where these ordinar ever da Athenians having been born and raised in a democrac where there was absolute freedom and freedom of speech, and where their st le of life is not bad for Greeks b Greek standards, and ou can imagine inviting these Athenian soldiers in for a meal and feeding them a Spartan meal, black soup and the Athenians think, this is what ou give the helots, right. You're not going to eat that stuff. You want us to eat that stuff? I wouldn't feed it to a pig. I'm inventing the conversation, but ou got the general idea, and the Spartans couldn't have enjo ed that ver much. Then as the looked around and saw what kind of state this was in which there were all these enslaved people, these vast numbers of enslaved people, not the kind of slaves the knew about, the ones who were like a hand man who assisted ou on the farm--vast numbers of them doing all the work while the Spartans didn't do an . Then the saw that business was run b a small group of people, that the average Spartan solider had nothing to sa about what was going on, and being Athenians the no doubt said something about that. Thuc dides sa s that the Spartans became fearful that the would in fact help the helots in a rebellion against the Spartans and that in general the Spartans feared their revolutionar spirit, and it was on that ground that the sent them awa . In an case, there was no doubt in the minds of the Athenians, the had been sent awa not in an honorable wa , in which friends treat friends, but the had been dismissed. When the came home the were furious that the had gone in the first place, angr with Cimon for sending them and for, of course, his proSpartan position in general. In the spring of 462--461 is it? I think it's 461. The ostraci ed Cimon and off he went. That was the deadl stroke in what was now--what could fairl be called a political revolution in Athens. It was not brought about b force; it was brought about in the constitutional wa , but it nonetheless put an end to a whole stretch of time in which the state was run in a certain wa and brought about a new development let us sa , a development towards a fuller democrac , but it's immediate consequences were a complete breach with Sparta. The Athenians renounced their old alliance made in the Hellenic League in 481. That was over. The turned around and made alliances with Argos, Sparta's bitter Peloponnesian enem . The made an alliance with people in the north, the Thessalians, who were famous for their cavalr , and the implication of that being that the Athenians had warlike intentions against the Spartans signing up, first of all, with their most famous local enem and then signing up for the opportunit to have a cavalr to use as well, and indeed as we will see, it did lead ver soon to a war between Athens and Sparta and their two sets of allies in what modern historians call the first Peloponnesian War. But before we get to that, I think we want to attend to the great changes in Athens internall that were brought about b this great revolution. I think first thing we need to do is, to dispose of Ephialtes, which is what his enemies did almost immediatel . He was murdered; somebod came and stuck a knife in him. It's ver interesting; this is the onl political assassination that we know of in the entire histor of the Athenian democrac . When ou think of how few were the methods for protecting an bod in the Athenian state, it reall is a C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX08.837/ /transcript15.html 8/13 2/7/12 transcript15.html .S A , -- I , .N U ; ' S ; , . P I ' C , A A , , A , .B --I .M , ' . I' . 500, C ' P .I .B A , . I' , .O A .A . A P , G A ,I 461, 460 , L A 460 450; ' G , P , , ' A I 450 , P , A , .W , .I , .W P F I , .T , , .I .D . F .M C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX08.837/ /transcript15.html . , A - ' ' ' P A , .T , , , .T A C G , , , P 9/13 2/7/12 transcript15.html .B .S , . M A A , , P .I 3000 B.C. , , .W , . I' -.T P T . T , , U , , .S , A A S I : A A A S . O ,I , , 6,000 A .I ; T C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX08.837/ /transcript15.html , , A .S , ' A , J D U S , A , .C G , A . , A S G B .G .F , , , , , , , , . , , ; .F , , ; , P .A ecclesia. I 40,000 ; .I 50,000 .N , . 5,000 6,000 .Y , , .Y . -,D , , 10/13 6,000 .O ' .T agora. C Pn , , ' ' 2/7/12 transcript15.html P .A 425. A A .Y ' , Acha nian , T , .I a i ophanic a i ophanic P , , P , , , ' ," "-ago a, ' ' .S , , , ," , .T A P .Y , , , , A ,I , ,I , ,I ,I , , ' I , A , ," -. "I ago a, , ' .T ' , , ,I , , , ?D ' I , , .H , . ? ,I , ' ' , .B , ' . H .S I , ." "S , I , E , 'W O , , , , , ' .T ?'" A ; ,I ,I I , .D .N , P , .T , , , . , , .T , I' .T , S .I , . C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX08.837/ /transcript15.html 11/13 , A CNN W H , , , ' .B U 2/7/12 transcript15.html P U S .I , C , M C , .C ?T .I ' Q , ' .F .A .I . T , .A , T T , ' , , ; .N .T A , C .T , A A .T , .I S .T , ' ' /transcript15.html , .I P P .A , A .I A .A A , , , .F , ' . P , P , , I' , .T A , , P .T ' .L . .T , .T , A .W , B . . , , , , e h na. N .E .B . , ' ' .I , , .E 12/13 , , . C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX08.837/ 2/7/12 transcript15.html , , ; A A , , A , , , ' , , , .C . , , .F .G . , , , A , , T , . [ ] , , A , , , . 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