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Unformatted text preview: 2/7/12 transcript18.html Introduction to Ancient Greek Histor : Lec November 8, 2007<< back e 18 T an c ip P ofe o Donald Kagan: The oaths establishing the thirt - ears peace was sworn in the ear 445. That leaves, as we know, of course the didn't about fourteen ears before the Great Peloponnesian War will break out, and although we onl know a little bit about the events between the two wars, what we do know, I think, is interesting although not eas to interpret evidence about the character of that peace, which we've been talking about. One wa to determine whether the peace was a true peace with a real chance of lasting and controlling international affairs for a good long time, or whether it was reall a truce that merel interrupted a conclusion to a war that was inevitable, I think that can be tested to some degree b the events that took place in those fourteen ears or so. I think we can--one critical question of course is quite apart from the objective elements of the peace, ma be more important than those are the intentions of the two sides and I think it is possible to arrive at some sense of what those intentions were. There is little doubt that Pericles still in the position of the leading politician in Athens, clearl the man who was, I think, the negotiator for peace on the Athenian side. If I'm right about his invention of the arbitration clause that would suggest he was ver much personall involved in shaping the character of that peace. It seems plain that he reall was sincerel committed to a polic of preserving peace for the future, for as far as it could possibl go. One reason is that several ears before the peace--indeed before this war had broken out, the Athenians had made a peace with the King of Persia. The negotiator on the Athenian side was a man named Callias and so it goes down in the books as the Peace of Callias. This is about as debated a subject as there is in the histor of ancient Greece. Was there reall a Peace of Callias or not? Was it a formal peace or not? Even in ancient times, some writers question whether this was a historical fact. I won't trouble ou with all the arguments both wa s, but let me indicate--m own opinion is that there actuall was a formal peace. But it doesn't matter whether that's true or false, because nobod doubts that there was a de fac o peace between the Athenians and their allies on the one hand and the Persians for a good long time, and that it is not broken until well into the Great Peloponnesian War when in the ear 412 there is a treat made between Sparta and Persia, which brings Persia into the war against the Athenians. So, there's this considerable stretch of time when there is peace with Persia. Now, about the same time--the traditional date for Peace of Callias is 449, and about the same time, we are told onl b Plutarch, so some scholars have questioned the historicit of this too, that Pericles called for a great Pan Hellenic Congress to discuss a variet of questions, but one of them was how shall we keep the promises we made after the Persian War to rebuild the temples to the gods that had been destro ed b the Persians in that war, and how shall we see to the freedom of the seas? Now, the question, of course, the temples of the gods that had been destro ed in the Persian War were essentiall all in Attica. So, here was an occasion where the Athenians were apparentl hoping to bring all the Greeks into the picture to help pa the costs of restoring those temples. It was the Athenians, who had benefited from it most, but also maintaining the freedom of the seas meant providing for a fleet that would keep the Persians out and keep pirates out and so on. The Athenians obviousl had that fleet. The result of having--If the Greeks had all in fact participated in this activit it would have been a wa of legitimi ing both the Athenian Empire and of course a nav that made it great, but also it would have legitimi ed the plan that Pericles had in mind and which we know he carried out to the best of his abilit immediatel to rebuild those temples, and indeed, to build some new ones as well on the C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX07.166/ /transcript18.html 1/14 2/7/12 transcript18.html A H G , I S A , .T A A ' A G .T , , , A E .N P A ? P P , , , .W A .S , .S , , ," , A , ' , ." I , .W ', , , , , .I , S , , ' .T P , , S .D P S ?O A ' .T . .Y A S G , ' -; ' . , -- A ' I , P P C S , ?W , , . P I A ' , .M .T P -. I , , ' I , G .Y , , ' . /transcript18.html .S , ' A A , , T 443. I .N , , a ikia .I .T C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX07.166/ 2/14 2/7/12 transcript18.html T A , P .H , , ; I , A ?W , I , ' P I A .A A P . T .A S " ? I .N ." M , , , , S A A P .T , A , , A , A O R T , , T /transcript18.html .I , .T A , oiko A , A ;P .H A , B.C. A H , T , ' , ; P ' -, . A .W A --I ; , P , .P . , I A .I , .O , .I A .W ?M P I , ' .W , " ," A A , .T A P I , , G " , , ," ' A A , ;P I I' , , .T I , S T , .S , ' . A A ' .O -- , , . C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX07.166/ 3/14 2/7/12 transcript18.html o ha e a Spa an colon figh ing again a Th ii, ha e e ha i . Imagine fo a momen ho gh i e e an A henian colon , a he people of a diffe en ie a . Wha doe A hen do? I hink ha ' eall c i ical. The an e i no hing. Ta a defea Th ii. Then o b i in he ake ome of he poil of ic o and place hem a Ol mpia he e he game a e held, he e all he G eek can come and ee, in hich he boa abo hei ic o o e Th ii. Wha do he A henian do abo all hi ? No hing; hi i no he a o beha e, if o ' e planning o a an empi e in Sicil and o he n I al . So, I hink ha ' a e e io blo o he heo of impe iali m o he e. Then a fe ea do n he oad, e ge o he ea 434 - 433, he c i i hich ill p od ce he G ea Peloponne ian Wa ha al ead beg n. So, e e bod i looking ahead o he coming a be een A hen and Spa a. A ha ime, he e i a big a g men ha b eak o i hin Th ii. Who e colon a e e? Once again, a e ific indica ion ha nobod hink i ' an A henian colon igh off he ba , al ho gh in he a g men , he A henian claim ell i ' an A henian colon --I mean he A henian in Th ii a , e' e an A henian colon beca e he e a e mo e A henian han an bod el e. Whe e pon, he Peloponne ian a , e he e a e mo e A henian han an bod el e b he e a e mo e Peloponne ian han he e a e A henian . So, e a e a Peloponne ian colon , e a e a Spa an colon . Well, he co ldn' ag ee, and o he came o he deci ion ha he o ld allo Apollo, h o gh hi o acle a Delphi, o decide. Well, ha ' an in e e ing hing oo. Who doe he o acle a Delphi lean o a d ? We' e had e clea e idence of i in he 440 . The a e p o-Spa an. The Spa an ha e been he defende of he p ie a again he Phocian f om he o ide. The e' e e ea on o belie e a deci ion made b he p ie of Apollo ill fa o Spa a and ha ' no ha happen ho gh. Wha he p ie a , o a e no an A henian colon , o ' e no a Spa an colon , o a e m colon , a Apollo. A e nice a o of he fi . B one hing he ' e no i an A henian colon . No , ha do ho e impe iali A henian do abo i ? No hing. To m mind ha ab ol el nde c an claim ha A henian impe iali m in he e e plain ha ' going on o he e. B h -- ha ' going on o he e al oge he ? Wh did he e abli h i a all? Wh did he e abli h i in he a ha he did and h did he eac , o no eac in he a ha he did? M gge ion fo hich he e i no ancien di ec e idence i i a mean pecificall o e c en mode n e m , hi a a diploma ic ignal. Pe icle an ed he e of he o ld, and mo e peciall , he Spa an and hei Peloponne ian allie o kno ha A hen did no ha e ambi ion of e panding hei empi e on o he mainland o o e . I hink ha a nde ood b he hi - ea peace i he A henian Empi e a i e i in he Aegean and i f on bo nda ie and o he ea in he di ec ion of Pe ia, ha ' he A henian phe e of infl ence, again o e a mode n e m. E e hing o he e of ha he A henian a e going o a o of and lea e alone. M ie i , Pe icle deli e ed ha me age in hi beha io conce ning Th ii and he o ld ha e kno n, I belie e, ha he n mbe one a e ho o ld be conce ned abo ha a happening o e o ld be Co in h, beca e he Co in hian chain of colonie and he Co in hian majo a ea of comme ce a in he e ; I al , Sicil and ch. So, i a he Co in hian I hink o hom he mean o end hi me age, and in a li le hile e'll ho ha o k o , he he i o ked o i did no . B i eem o me ha i he onl a o nde and he e e en ha I ha e been p ing oge he , b ha ing aid ha , I emind o ha o he chola don' nde and i ha a . Thi ake o he ea 440, hen ano he c i ical e en e he peace. The I land of Samo ha been an oliga chic egime. I ha been one of he bigge a e in he empi e; i ha been a onomo , ha i o a i ha C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX07.166/ /transcript18.html 4/14 2/7/12 transcript18.html , A S P polei N A , ' , , , I .I , .I A S . S .O , A , , , P M , , M , G .O , .S , ' ?T .S , A .S M , A , .W , ' A M , .T , .T .P , .T ' ; .T , I' , S A , O , S B P , , S , C W , .O .S S N , ' , A , P . ' /transcript18.html S ' . A , .H . , ' , , . .T .H , .N B ' , , .S ,A , A , P 5/14 .H , I ' , ' , ' -, .F .T P I , ' , ' , B , M I , . , T I , , , E C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX07.166/ 2/7/12 transcript18.html , .T , .I , .S , A A P , T S A , 431, 433 C , ? O A "W , C S , A N , ;" , P .O ." N , ," ' , C ,I P A I' .A , , , L G A , W .N , A 440. .W .I , P , ' , .I P P ; S .B P , A W .T ; , , S ' , , , C S A , , .W . A .P G , ' .M -- A W , T 440, T , . C , , .P .T , S , 433 .W , I 432 ' , C M , I , P C , 461, 460 C .M A .S , 440, , I , . -I ' A A -P A , T C A , , ,I I' , .B 440, 6/14 ' C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX07.166/ /transcript18.html 2/7/12 transcript18.html , S , I , , . .W T ' C , T I S S P , ; S S , I -, C .T T .H .B , ' , . , , S . A .A , A S I , S ' I .I P S S 440 W , W A , L ; A ' .O , .H . .T , S S , I' M A B , W S A A .T S , I B G , I E C C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX07.166/ , , , .S , ; , ' , ' I' .M , . I , I. W .W T A I I G . N C C /transcript18.html ' , S 24 ?I S .I R E G . S , I' I' . A , D I' .I .I 7/14 2/7/12 transcript18.html nothing. I would have been embarrassed to say that even in 1937, but it's really something about Epidamnus, I mean it's way out there in the middle of nowhere as far as the Greeks are concerned. Nothing is important about Epidamnus itself. This is one of the many occasions in which great wars start in places that are inherently insignificant but certain aspects of the situation make them significant. In this case, the most important aspect was that Epidamnus had been founded by Corcyra, the modern island of Corfu, located not too far to the south of Epidamnus. By the way, I should have told you that the town of ancient Epidamnus today is in Albania and I can't pronounce. I don't know how Albanians pronounce things but my best attempt is Durr s, but I'm not sure that's right. Anyway, the Corcyrians established the colony there centuries ago, but Corcyra was a colony itself of Corinth, but as I told you earlier in the semester it was a very unusual colony. Its relations with the mother city were most unusual. Thucydides reports that the first trireme battle in all of history was fought between Corinth and Corcyra in the seventh century and there are repeated wars between Corinth and Corcyra just about one a century sometimes more frequently, and it's very clear that by the time we are into the 430s, these two cities hate each other and they hate each other with a traditional hatred handed on down from century to century. This is a very critical part of comprehending what takes place here. Anyway, sometime maybe around 436, a civil war breaks out within the city of Epidamnus in what is not unusual by now in the Greek world. It's about democrats versus oligarchs and one side has control of the city, the other side is driven into exile. The exiles get help from the barbarian tribes in the neighborhood, because we're really talking about the frontier of the Greek world. They are not surrounded by fellow Greeks; they are surrounded by non-Greeks. So, there they are when the people, who are besieged, send a delegation to their mother city, Corcyra, asking for help from Corcyra in bringing peace to the city and in putting an end to the siege which they are experiencing in. Well, the Corcyraeans are not interested; their answer is "no." We don't want to help you. There's no evidence they care about which side wins; they see no point in getting involved themselves. An important part of the story of Corcyra and its significance in the coming of the war is that it was neutral towards everybody. It was not a part of the Peloponnesian confederation. It was not part of the Athenian League, and it wasn't associated with anybody else. In fact, it had a reputation if you can believe the Corinthians of being terribly uppity and unassociating with anybody. I guess if you asked a Corcyrian he might have used Lord Salsbury's term for Great Britain late in the nineteenth century as enjoying splendid isolation. It wasn't too many years before Lord Salisbury and others realized that isolation wasn't so splendid as they thought and so it was with Corcyra. But for the moment the Corcyraeans are saying who the hell cares who wins your stupid civil war, take a walk. So, they did. Well, I should say they took a boat ride. They went to Corinth. Now, this demonstrates an incredibly important principle of human behavior. What do you do if you go to mother and you ask her, "can I have the keys to the car," or whatever it is you need and she says, "no, you go to grandma," you know what grandma will say, right? You know the old story about the grandmother. Somebody rushes up, tells the grandmother, "your grandson has just taken a neighbor's child and thrown him out of a thirdfloor window." Grandmother says, "bless him, such strong hands." So, the Corinthians react as grandmother might; that is to say, they agree to send help to the besieged Epidamnians. They also agree to send an army; first they'd end a fleet, then they'll send an army which will go there as well, and they also are willing to re-colonize the city, because, of course, the city is now divided between two sides. So, if the people inside are going to win the war ultimately they're going to need new citizens; they're not going to want to take back those people trying to kill them. So, the Corinthians organize a new colony to join them. In other words, they give them every kind of help that anybody can imagine. C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX07.166/ /transcript18.html 8/14 2/7/12 transcript18.html N , , .T C , C , , C , , C C ' C .W T C , ' E .H . I W H , .T , T ? , , , , .T , , , ' . , ; ' .R , ,C C E .C .N , ' . ?W ?I -, .L ' -, ' ? ' .I I , ?D , , 2000 T C C /transcript18.html .W C ?T .T .T I , , , C .O O ' , -- M .T .S , ' , ' , ' T , , , ' ; .I ' ; I I C .T ?W ' . T E E N , .I' .T .T ?D I , I' 500 .T .T ' C C ' .M ; ' T , , T .S , C , I , .T , ,C 9/14 C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX07.166/ 2/7/12 transcript18.html S I L C C , .C ; , C , ' W , ' .N W L . T C ' I C W , T C C , , A , ' .W ,T ?T ' .W .B C , , ; ?T C , , --I C . P .S , , .T , , I' ' ' , .C C , ' ; P ' , ' ; .N ' .A .I .I , C .T A . .T . I 435 C , P , C ; , . /transcript18.html 10/14 C , ; C .W ' .Y . , .I ; . C ' , .B ,I .T S . , , .I , .A , , .W . .S A W , C , P .T C C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX07.166/ , , .T C B .C , L ; A C , C 2/7/12 transcript18.html C , P .T ' .T C , T A T .T ' . I I S , ' A , O C .D ' ' , , , , , A , , C .T C A A .T A , S C S 433 433. N C ,I C A .T . -, C C , -, --I .S , , poli ' , , , -, .I ' . , ' poli -A , .C A " " , . , ' G ' S .T C ' . , .D ' .Y ' .T ' .T ' ' ' .T A , .I , .T . ' --I' ' ; ' I' ' .I, ' , .N , , , ; .Y ' .T , ' , , , , , , ' I , ; .N C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX07.166/ ' . O , .W , I , /transcript18.html 11/14 2/7/12 transcript18.html H , T S ' ' , C , ' .T , , ; N T B .T . N A , S .B C C .C . T C , .B , A .T A T A P , ; I' ; ' ' , .B .W , ; , '.T ' , , ' , C C .I C , ' ' .T ; , ' ?S , , , A ' C .T ' ' A . , E 1936 ' .T .W ; .T . ; I ' .O C C , . ' .I .T , C I ; ' . R . - , ' , ' , .T ' ' .B A C , C , . A S , P .W . I' .S 461, , , , .S , I ' , ' , ' .S , ' , .A ?W , M .T O ' ' , ' .M .S , ; , . .T C /transcript18.html , 12/14 C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX07.166/ 2/7/12 transcript18.html he e e e ab e i a a he ha e bee , i ce he hei e i e ge he . I a a fi d i i i ai g ea a ,a dIh e a e, a ea a a g G ea B i ai a he e d f he i e ee h a d he begi i g f he e ie h ce . G ea B i ai , a he begi i g f he i e ee h, f he idd e a d af e he i e ee h ce ca e--had he g ea e a i he d ih e i . I a he g ea e e i he d. I had hi e e i e ha i ed a d i e abii ie e e ai agai F a ce a d R ia, h e e i e ia i a i he a ea ha he B i i h ca ed ab . A a ce ai i he decided a e hei f ee be he i e f he e f ee ge he , i de fee ec e i ca e a a b e , a d ha ' ha he did. E e hi g a fi e i Kai e Wi ia bec e he E e f Ge a a d a d he e d f he i e ee h ce decide ha Ge a be a g ea a a e.I be a d e i e, i cha e ge B i ai f ha i a d he begi b id a f ee f ba e hi h e e ca be de he B i i h f ee a d a he Ge a i ade B i ai , be f a i i ida e he B i i h i e i g a ide a d a i g he Ge a d ha he a d .A a hi bec e c ea he B i i h, a a he Ge a a b idi g ha f ee , i i e g e gh defea he B i i h f ee , a d he B i i h e e i a a a ace ee i ha he d ' ge be big e gh a e he B i i h f ee . B i' e c , he B i i h d ' i e i , he fi d e e a , a d ha he d i c e e f i hei di ac hich ha d i a ed hei beha i f e a h d ed ea a d he a e a a ia ce i h F a ce a d R ia ee i ha he Ge a a e chec ed a d e e ed f d i g ha he ' e a i g d . I hi ha d e he de a d ha he A he ia a e d i g. Whe a e, a i he ca e f B i ai , a i a d a e a d a i he ca e f A he igh a e be a i a d a e, beca e a e de e de i f f d a d he c a d f he ea i e e ia f ac i i g ha , i ch a ca e i i a igh hi g e i a cha ge i he a a ba a ce f e , hich a a e ei e ab e i ca e f a . The i I a a e i ha he B i i h did ' ai i he Ge a had e a ed hei f ce; he cha ged hei ic a d i a e ed i a e e i a d ha ' he e he A he ia I hi f d he e e . I a e hi g he e e i i g d , b i a a e ha d ca , a d e a e d ha he a g ed g ha i g da bef e he deci i c d be ade. Th c dide a , i a h gh ha he e e i c i i g agai he a ia ce he i g da . The e agai he e da a d hi i e he ed f e hi g a bi diffe e f ha he had bee a i g ab he da bef e. Wha he C c ia had bee e e i g a a ica a ia ce, he id e f be ee G ee , a s mmachia, a ffe i e a d defe i e a ia ce. I d ha e e i ed he A he ia g a d figh he C i hia , e e if he C i hia did ' a ac C c a. I d ha e he f a a agai he C i hia . Tha ' ha he A he ia ed. O he ec d da he ed he i i ha he e ab i hed e hi g ca ed a epimachia, hich ea a defe i e a ia ce . The d figh agai a e e , if ha e e had a ac ed C c a a d a i he ce f a di g hei e i , a d ha ' fi a ha he A he ia did. Tha a he e he . O ce agai , e ha e e hi g hea d f bef e, a de ice hich i i a a a ge a di a ic de ice ea ha e c e e ce hi i g a he ha i edia e ii a e . S , I a i' g be Pe ic e , b I fee be e hi i e, beca e P a ch a , i a Pe ic e e e h gh Th c dide d e ' a h ade ha a. I a c ea ha Pe ic e a ed beca e he h d i e , e fi , i b h di ec i , b h i e f he i i ha hi A he ia ac i , b he de e i a i a e ha ac i a e ha . Wha I gge i ha e a e g i g be dea i g f he e i -- e ha e bee dea i g i h i a ge e a a a a ,b i ' e c ea , hi i Pe ic e ' ic . I a e i i a ic i e ded ee he eace, a d he e C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX07.166/ /transcript18.html 13/14 2/7/12 transcript18.html , , , . O O , , , , T .Y , ,I A , , .H , .W .S , ' ' W , T C , .T , , ' N L , A , A S .I S A .A I [ I ] , P . S I' , , A C , L , . , , I , , .I , A I S A , ?M.S . P A .T L ' , , C .T A C --I' I ; C A , P . , , C I , C C ' ' I' , , , ' , ' , .O ' .O ' .A , .W , , , . , ' . .I .T .W ' , . B ' .T ; ' C .W , P .H ' S , C .I' , C:/Users/JIMMIN~1/AppData/Local/Temp/Rar$EX07.166/ /transcript18.html 14/14 ...
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