Mieszkowski Mills - February 1, 2012 The Causes of...

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February 1, 2012 The Causes of Metropolitan Surbanization Intro - 1970: 69% of the population lived in metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) - 1980: 75% - 1990: 77% To demonstrate the decentralization: - 1950s: 57% of MSA residents & 70% of MSA jobs were located in central cities - 1960s: 49% & 63% - Home mortgage insurance was to blame for suburbanization in the 1950s. 1960s: racial tensions & interstate highway system. Recently, it was crime & schooling that was blamed for decentralization. - Most high income countries are 60-85% metropolitan Two classes of theories - Natural Evolution Theory : residential development takes place from the inside out – inside being the center of a city where there is more employment. Minimizes transportation costs to start from the inside. The inside then become more stratified and houses more low income groups while the more affluent live in suburban areas. o Causes employment decentralization - Fiscal & social problems: high taxes, low quality public schools and other government services, racial tensions, crime, congestion, and low environment quality o Affluent residents move to suburbs and cause the concentrated areas to deteriorate more Affluent seek homogenous communities: avoids local redistributive taxes, varies demands for local public goods (caused by income and taste differences) and homogenous groupings cause greater educational achievement o Tiebout (1956) Model: Land use controls – residential segregation based on income - Flight from blight
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Mieszkowski Mills - February 1, 2012 The Causes of...

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