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1850s-RoadToSecession - By Ms Susan M Pojer Horace Greeley...

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Unformatted text preview: By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY Additions by M. Lynde Currituck County High School Barco, NC Let's Review How America Grows Maps of the US Political maps 1816-1864 The Popular Sovereignty Panacea 1848 Post Mexican War & Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo North anti-slaverites backed Wilmot Proviso South worried about slavery in western areas Whig and Democratic Parties split along North South line Free Soil Party Free Soil! Free Speech! Free Labor! Free Men! "Barnburners" discontented northern Democrats. Anti-slave members of the Liberty and Whig Parties. Opposition to the extension of slavery in the new territories! WHY? The 1848 Presidential Election Results Hero of Buena Vista Father of "popular sovereignty" Free Soi l GOLD! At Sutter's Mill, 1848 John A. Sutter California Gold Rush, 1849 49er's Two Views of San Francisco, Early 1850s By 1860, almost 300,000 people had traveled the Oregon & California Trails to the Pacific coast. Territorial Growth to 1853 Sectional Balance and the Underground Railroad Problems of Sectional Balance in 1850 California statehood. Southern "fire-eaters" threatening secession. Underground RR & fugitive slave issues: Personal liberty laws South in 1850 SOUTH HAPPY Zachary Taylor as president Majority on Supreme Court Outnumbered in the House Equal in the Senate Cotton expanding- profits high BUT SAD BECAUSE... 15 free and 15 slave states California admission is a problem New Mexico and Utah want admission as free state Texas claims part of New Mexico Northerners want to end slavery in Washington DC Runaway slaves assisted by Underground RR Twilight of the Senatorial Giants The Immortal Trio John C Calhoun Daniel Webster Henry Clay USS JOHN C. CALHOUN was the 13th LAFAYETTE - class nuclear powered fleet ballistic missile submarine. The JOHN C. CALHOUN was built to accommodate the Polaris A3 missiles and was refitted with the Poseidon missiles from 1969 on. From 1979-82, the JOHN C. CALHOUN received upgrades to carry the Trident I missiles. Decommissioned and stricken from the Navy list on March 28, 1994, the JOHN C. CALHOUN was adjacently disposed of through the Nuclear Powered Ship and Submarine Recycling Program at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Wash. Recycling was completed on November 18, 1994. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Henry_Clay.JP http://www.old-picture.com/daguerreotypes/pictures/Unidentified-half-length-016.jpg Henry Clay Twilight of the Senatorial Giants Clay's last great compromise. Aided by Senator Stephen Douglas (Illinois) John C Calhoun's championed the South in his last great speech (let's elect John C Calhoun 2 presidents!) Uphold Clay's measures - urged concessions like the Fugitive Slave Law. Why worry because the good Lord had Daniel Webster decreed through geography, and climate that slavery won't last in new Mexican territories (bankers of North liked this as they won't lose investments in South) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Henry_Clay.JP http://www.old-picture.com/daguerreotypes/pictures/Unidentified-half-length-016.jpg Twilight of the Senatorial Giants Daniel Webster Slavery is evil but disunion is a worse evil. He despised abolitionists and never joined their ranks http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Henry_Clay.JP http://www.old-picture.com/daguerreotypes/pictures/Unidentified-half-length-016.jpg Deadlock and Danger on Capitol Hill Young Guard of North speaks in the Senate more interested in purging and purifying the nation than patching it up and preserving it Wm. Seward - strongly antislavery - appeal to Zach. Taylor a "higher law" than the Constitution President I'm with Seward I'm vetoing any Compromise! http://www.visitingdc.com/images/zachary-taylor-picture.jpg Compromise of 1850 (over the land acquired specifically from the Mexican War). Texas would relinquish the land in dispute but, in compensation, be given 10 million dollars -- money it would use to pay off its debt to Mexico. The territories of New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, and Utah would be organized without mention of slavery. (The decision would be made by the territories' inhabitants later, when they applied for statehood.) Regarding Washington, the slave trade would be abolished in the District of Columbia, although slavery would still be permitted. Finally, California would be admitted as a free state. To pacify slave-state politicians, who would have objected to the imbalance created by adding another free state, the Fugitive Slave Act was passed. Luckily.... Taylor dies Millard Fillmore (lawyer from NY) takes over http://members.tripod.com/~CARIART/Zachary_Taylor.jpg http://www.visitingdc.com/images/millard-fillmore-picture.jpg Millard Fillmore Fillmore,president due to Zachary Taylor's death, supported the Compromise of 1850 and saw it as the "final settlement" of the question of slavery What are the concessions to both sides? Compromise of 1850 Temporary Peace Who got the best deal? Fugitive Slave Law the Fugitive Slave Act was the most controversial part of the Compromise of 1850 It required citizens to assist in the recovery of fugitive slaves. It denied a fugitive's right to a jury trial. (Cases would instead be handled by special commisioners -commisioners who would be paid $5 if an alleged fugitive were released and $10 if he or she were sent away with the claimant.) The act called for changes in filing for a claim, making the process easier for slaveowners. Also, according to the act, there would be more federal officials responsible for enforcing the law. FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT Effects of Fugitive Slave Act For slaves attempting to build lives in the North, the new law was disaster. Many left their homes and fled to Canada. During the next ten years, an estimated 20,000 blacks moved to the neighboring country. For Harriet Jacobs, a fugitive living in New York, passage of the law was "the beginning of a reign of terror to the colored population." She stayed put, even after learning that slave catchers were hired to track her down. Anthony Burns, a fugitive living in Boston, was one of many who were captured and returned to slavery. Free blacks, too, were captured and sent to the South. With no legal right to plead their cases, they were completely defenseless. FURTHER EFFECTS. . . Passage of the Fugitive Slave Act made abolitionists all the more resolved to put an end to slavery. The Underground Railroad became more active, reaching its peak between 1850 and 1860. The act also brought the subject of slavery before the nation. Many who had previously been ambivalent about slavery now took a definitive stance against the institution. Was the Compromise a success? The Compromise of 1850 accomplished what it set out to do -- it kept the nation united -but the solution was only temporary. Over the following decade the country's citizens became further divided over the issue of slavery. The rift would continue to grow until the nation itself divided. Temporary Peace Va slave captured in Boston - under heavy armed guard removed and returned to the South "Bostonian went to bed one night an old fashioned, conservative, Compromise Union Whigs and waked up stark mad Abolitionists" Personal Liberty Laws Why Not Begin The Civil War in the 1850s? South - happy to since Northerners not following laws (Fugitive) and promises North - time to expand and create more wealth and population Time for moral strength of the North to build Defeat and Doom for the Whigs UPCOMING ELECTION OF 1852 GET OUT YOUR POLITICAL PARTY CHARTS Democrats - Franklin Pierce- enemyless, inconspicious, prosouthern northerner. Endorse Compromise 1850 and Fugitive Slave Law Whigs - didn't pick Webster or Fillmore. Instead went with military guy- Gen Winfield Scott. OK with Compromise of 1850 Whigs split and begin to die in this election. End of national parties and rise of purely sectional parties. RIP Whig Party - kept Union together through electoral strength in South and through leaders like Webster and Clay 1852 Presidential Election Franklin Pierce Gen. Winfield Scott John Parker Hale Democrat Whig Free Soil 1852 Election Results Franklin Pierce Manifest Destiny Nicaragua - William Walker British challenged Monroe Doctrine Expansionist Young America in the 1850s America's Attempted Raids into Latin America Mikado's empire of Japan Commodore Perry - commercial foot in door CUBA Sugar mills Ostend Manifesto - $120 million offered and if Spain refuses then US would be justified in taking Cuba (Monroe Doctrine) Northern free soilers furious Pierce recalls the Ostend Manifesto Pacific Railroad and Gadsden Purchase Transportation problems after Mexican War California and Oregon isolated RR promoters - where run the line? Where end it? Run it south of Mexican border? Gadsden Purchase 1853 Where will that RR go? ...
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