America In World War II

America In World War II - America In World War II I. The...

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America In World War II I. The Allies Trade Space For Time a. Advantages and Disadvantages i. Advantages – 1. Had limitless money and supplies 2. Had more people ii. Disadvantages – 1. Didn’t have time to waste because the Germans were winning 2. Weren’t prepared for war 3. Had to feed, clothe, arm, and transport troops to faraway places (the allies had done some of that during WWI – they couldn’t in this war) II. The Shock of War a. National Unity i. Was no problem due to Pearl Harbor ii. Millions of Italian Americans and German Americans supported the war (this contrasted with WWI, when the patriotism of many immigrants was questioned) iii. It speeded the assimilation process for many ethnic groups b. Japanese Americans i. The government feared that the 127,000 Japanese Americans living on the West Coast would sabotage the war effort ii. After Pearl Harbor, rumors of spies and sabotage spread fear and prejudice. The press increased people’s fears with headlines such as “Jap Boat Flashes Message Ashore.” The Japanese were depicted as subhuman or pestilence (insects) iii. In February 1942, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066. It authorized the removal of 110,000 people who would be relocated to internment camps iv. Families would be abruptly taken from their home without any warning or time to take any valuables with them. What was left behind was often stolen. In addition, they were taken from their jobs v. These camps were located in remote areas and had wooden barracks covered with tar paper. Inside the barracks, families had a room equipped with only cots, blankets, and a light bulb. People had to share toilet, bathing, and dining facilities vi. In the Supreme Court case Korematsu v. U.S., the Court upheld the right of the government to remove individuals during an emergency or time of war. The dissenting judges said it amounted to the legalization of racism
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vii. In 1945, Japanese Americans were allowed to leave the camps. In 1988, Congress granted each internee $20,000 and an apology c. End of the New Deal i. Most programs were wiped out by the more conservative Congress elected in 1942 ii. Roosevelt himself admitted that the New Deal was over and that efforts on the war replaced it d. Citizen Awareness i. Government did make some effort to publicize the Atlantic Charter, but by 1942, only 1/10 could site something specific from it ii. In 1943, a near-majority didn’t have a clear idea what the war was about III. Building the War Machine a. American Economy i. Was boosted by: 1. Billions of dollars in military orders ($100 billion in 1942 alone). National debt went from 1941 - $49 billion; 1945 - $259 billion (war cost at one time was $10 million an hour). Most paid through: a. Higher taxes paid for 41% of the war b. War bonds – government savings bonds that financed the war. Brought in about $156 billion. Propaganda posters pushed the bond drive 2. 40 billion bullets 3. 300,000 aircraft 4. 76,000 ships 5. 86,000 tanks
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2012 for the course HISTORY 104 taught by Professor Reed during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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America In World War II - America In World War II I. The...

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