Unformatted text preview: The Road to Revolution What is meant by "salutary neglect" and how does this lead directly to the revolution? Revolution?
What was the Revolutionary mov't at its core really all about? The amount of taxation? The right of Parliament to tax? The political corruption of Britain and the virtue of America? The right of a king to govern America? The colonies' growing sense of nat'l identity apart from Britain? Was the Revolution truly a radical overturning of gov't and society - the usual definition of a "revolution - or something far more limited or even "conservative" in its defense of traditional rights? Divorce? Britain at the crossroads Dean Josiah Tucker Advises a Divorce (1774) What 5 points does he make about a divorce between the colonies and the motherland? Whose Revolution
Varying viewpoints: whose revolution?
An ideological view of the Revolution as resulting from the Progressive about liberty Revolution colonists' ideas view of the and power. as product of social conflict among colonial "The colonists believed they saw emerging from the welter of groups. "It was the opposition of interests events during the decade after the Stamp Act a pattern whose In America that chiefly made men extremists meaning was unmistakable...They saw about them, with On either side.... Those men who wished policies increasing clarity, no merely mistaken, or even evil,to take a violating the principles upon which freedom rested, but what safe middle ground, who wished neither to renounce appeared to be evidence of nothing less than as rebels, assault their country nor to mark themselves a deliberate launched surreptitiously by plotters against liberty both in England could no longer hold together" and in America.... This belief transformed the colonists' Carl L. Becker Beginnings of the American People struggle..." (1915)
Bernard Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (1967) Parliament rejected the First Continenta Congress' petition April 1775 Br. Commander in Boston sent detachment of troops to nearby Lexington and Concord Shot heard around the world British lost 1/3 of their army On t he Eve of t he Revol ut i on ?
Br i t a i n pop adv 3:1 Ame r i c a n s defensive fight self sustaining agric Moral advantage just cause Advantages Naval power Wealth Professional army Ireland worry French backstab No Wm Pitt to organize Liked American cousins disjointed/jealous Badly organized No currency Disadvantages Write this down! Second Continental Congress May 1775 Conservative No well defined desire for independence Best political move - drafting G Washington Va to balance Ma - aristocrat to balance "masses" Loyal i st St r onghol ds W ashi ngt on' s Headaches
Onl y 1/ 3 of t he col oni st s wer e i n f avor of a war f or i ndependence [ t he ot her t hi r d wer e Loyal i st s, and t he f i nal t hi r d wer e neut r al ] . St at e/ col ony l oyal t i es. Congr ess coul dn' t t ax t o r ai se m oney f or t he Cont i nent al Ar m y. Poor t r ai ni ng [ unt i l t he ar r i val of Bar on von St euben. Expor t s & I m por t s: 1783 1768- Make Up Your Mind! One hand Americans trying to affirm loyalty to king and trying to patch up Other hand raising armies and shooting Br. Soldiers M l i t ar y St r at egi es i
The Amr i i on At ter it cans
[ t he Br i t s had a l ong suppl y l i ne] . Guer i l l a t act i cs [ f i ght an i nsur gent war you don' t have t o wi n a bat t l e, j ust wear t he Br i t i sh down] M ake an al l i ance wi t h The Br i t i sh
Br eak t he col oni es i n hal f by get t i ng bet ween t he No. & t he So. Bl ockade t he por t s t o pr event t he f l ow of goods and suppl i es f r om an al l y. " Di vi de and Conquer " use t he Handout Battle of Lexington & Concord April 19, 1775 Fort Ticonderoga May 10, 1775 Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775 Common Sense, Feb 14,1776 Siege of Charleston, June 1776 Declaration, July 1776 Battles for New York August October, 1776 Battles for New York August October, 1776 Trenton, December 26, 1776 Princeton, January 2, 1777 Saratoga, September 1777 2nd Saratoga, October 1777 Valley Forge, Dec. 1777 June 1778 France joins the war against Britain, February 6, 1778 British take Charleston, SC May 12 1780 American victory at Cowpens, SC Jan. 17, 1781 American victory at Guilford Courthouse NC Mar 15 1781 British surrender at Yorktown Oct 19, 1781 Treaty of Paris signed Sept 3 1783 Phase I : The Nor t her n Cam pai gn
[ 1775- 1776] May 1775: Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold. Ticonderoga and Crown Point Bunker Hi l l ( June, 1775) The Br i t i sh suf f er ed over 40% Second Continental Congress
Olive Branch Petition July 1775 REJECTED! Now it is treason - punishable by hanging! Then he hired Hessians! Thomas Paine's Common Sense aka "pis*&^ing in the wind" Best seller Common sense said to completely rebel - Britain was smaller than us! Biblical language appealed to the masses Thomas Paine's Common Sense Not just independence but whole new republic -where power comes from the people themselves Radical revert to Greece Traditional was "mixed gov't" This suggestion was heard b/c
Colonist experience in self - govt ex: New England Experience in democratic town meets Committees of correspondence showed republican gov't working No hereditary aristocracy in the colonies Citizen Virtue
Because political power will no longer reside with the king Individuals need to sacrifice their personal selfinterest to the public good **collective good of the "people" mattered more than private rights and interests Republicanism for them meant an end to hereditary aristocracy but not an end to all social hierarchy. Many still worried the revolutionary fervor for liberty would overwhelm the stability of the social order What are the single most important 35 words in the English language? Declaration of Independence
Handout Price they paid Phase II: NY & PA
[ 1777- 1778] New Yor k Ci t y i n Fl am es ( 1776) Burgoyne's Plan - 1777 Capture the Hudson River Valley, thereby cutting New England off from the rest of the country,squeezing it to death. sail down Lake Champlain and recapture Fort Ticonderoga. head through the forest to try and attack the Americans. Burgoyne was only traveling 22 miles, but it took him 20 days to cover it because he had 600 wagons going through the forest and the muddy marsh with him. Over 30 of them were carrying his own personal baggage because even in the wilderness, Gentleman Johnny Burgoyne ate off of silver plates. This gave the Americans time to prepare for the British. When the British got to Saratoga, their 6,000 man army was outnumbered and after a fierce battle, they lost. Shortly after, the French decided to help the American cause for freedom. These were the two major turning points in the war, which turned it in America's favor. Sar at oga:
"Tur ni ng Poi nt " of t he W ? ar A m oder n- day r eenact m ent Arnold Leading the Charge at Freeman's Farm During the second battle of Saratoga on Oct. 7, 1777, Arnold led a headlong charge, captured a key redoubt, was again wounded, and made the British surrender inevitable. One of his soldiers called Arnold "as brave a ARNOLD'S TREASON His bitterness, along with a need for money
to pay heavy debts, led Arnold to negotiate with the British. He conceived a plan to betray West Point, a post that he commanded
His attempted treachery was revealed when John Andre (left), a British major, was captured in September 1780 carrying Arnold's message. Arnold escaped to the enemy lines and was commissioned a brigadier general in the British army. For his W ashi ngt on Cr ossi ng t he Del awar e Pai nt ed by Em anuel Leut ze, 1851! I s i t r eal i st i c? The People of Valley Forge There were 12,000 men and women of the Continental Army in Valley Forge on during the winter of 1777. The Commander-in-Chief was General George Washington. It was a difficult time for them. There wasn't enough food or shelter from the weather. They had lost battles at Brandywine in September and Germantown in October. They were discouraged and wondered if they could even win the war. The men were as young as eleven and as old as 60. Most of the soldiers were white, but there were some blacks and Indians. There were even some foreigners there who helped the soldiers. 2,000 died; the others stayed at their posts THE NAVAL WAR - it goes global! An important factor, and one not always remembered, was that the Continental Congress relied heavily on aid from abroad. Aid which included not only muskets and powder, but ultimately ships and men as well. This aid could only be brought to American shores by water, and to do it required a sea power to counterbalance that of England. The struggle for North America was fought not only at Trenton, Monmouth,and Saratoga, but also in the cold, gray seas off Ushant; off Cadiz, and in the shadows of grim Gibralter and in the tropical waters of the West Indies Phase I I I : The Sout her n St r at egy [ 1780- 1781] Br i t ai n' s "Sout her n St r at egy" Br i t ai n t hought t hat t her e
wer e m e Loyal i st s i n t he or Sout h. Sout her n r esour ces wer e m e or val uabl e/ wor t h pr eser vi ng. The Br i t i sh wi n a num ber of sm l vi ct or i es, but cannot al paci f y t he count r ysi de [ si m l ar t o U. S. f ai l ur es i n i Vi et nam ] ! Good US Gener al : Nat hani al Gr eene The Bat t l e of Yor kt own ( 1781) Count de Rocham beau Adm r al i De Gr asse Cor nwal l i s' Sur r ender at Yor kt own:
" The W l d Tur ned Upsi de or " The W l d Tur ned Upsi de or Down! " Down! " Pai nt ed by John Tr um bul l , 1797 Recap of Important Battles
1. 2. Lexington Concord 1775
Shot heard @ the world Breeds- Bunker Hill 1775
Don't fire `til you see the whites of their eyes 3. Trenton- Princeton 1776
G. Washington crosses frozen Delaware River Christmas Eve 4. Saratoga Oct 17, 1777
Howe and Burgoyne( Br) vs. Gates (colonist) Fr $ - Valley Forge 5. war Yorktown Oct 17, 1781 * end Cornwallis (Br) vs. G. Washington and Nor t h Am i ca Af t er t he er Tr eat y of Par i s, 1783 ...
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