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Unformatted text preview: of i ew l i c v al e pub c ssi el r C l a mo d a En li g Th ht e n in e k i m nt ng 1. Govt . get s i t s aut hor i t y f r om t he ci t i zens. 2. A sel f l ess, educat ed ci t i zenr y. 3. El ect i ons shoul d be f r equent . 4. Govt . shoul d guar ant ee i ndi vi dual r i ght s & f r eedom s. 5. Govt . ' s power shoul d be l i m t ed [ checks & i bal ances] . 6. The need f or a wr i t t en Const i t ut i on. 7. " E Pl ur i bus Unum " . [ "Out of m any, one" ] 8. An i m por t ant r ol e f or wom en r ai se good, vi r t uous ci t i zens. [ "Republ i can Id [ C eal in ci ci t i nn at z en us ] The "Vi r t uous Republ i c"
l" il ] h a r op h on y W nt i t Ci hn " o [J Social Revolution? Some did not even know it was happening Mass exodus of conservative loyalists weakened aristocratic upper crust allowing for more patriotic elites to emerge Trade organizations for artisans and laborers; "Mr" and "Mrs" Anglican church emerges as Protestant Episcopalian Separation of Church and State: 1786 Thomas Jefferson's Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom Philadelphia Quakers estb. antislavery society Why not free slaves now? Political expediency overcame idealism Women? NJ allowed vote but took it back. Instead "republican motherhood" The Key Concepts of Chapter 9 The Articles of Confederation (AOC) were unable to address the economic and political problems facing the new nation The Constitution was completed only because the delegates to the Constitutional Convention were able to reach a number of major compromises Opposition to ratification of the Constitution came from anti-federalists, who feared a strong central gov't Promise of a bill of rights was important to ratification of the Constitution How Do You Create A New Gov't? Power where? In the states? In central gov't? Who has the most power? States? Nat'l gov't? Who has what responsibilities? Warning! We are already fighting a tyrannical gov't abusing our rights - we have to be so careful as to who has what power. But then, you can't really function w/out some central gov't having power... How Will This New Gov't Look?
Bicameral or unicameral? How will representation be apportioned? Will larger states with larger population have larger representation than smaller states? Will larger states pay more in taxes? How Will This Work? Some issues will be solved in AOC Some issued will be solved with Constitution...but Some issues will require a civil war to determine the relationship b/w states and federal gov't What Is The Biggest Deal of the AOC? Who controls western lands! Jurisdiction should be fed. Gov't job But boundary lines not delineated; some states both claim same land! Some states claim land to the Pacific! Only when Va and NY compromise by relinquishing their claims was the new gov't as found in the AOC ratified in March 1781 St at e Cl ai m t o W er n s est Lands W eaknesses of t he Ar t i cl es of Conf eder at i on
* not col l ect i on of l aws, cust om s as i n Br i t ai n but consci ousl y const r uct ed cont r act s
A uni cam al Congr ess er [ 9 of 13 vot es t o pass a l aw] . 13 out of 13 t o am end. Repr esent at i ves wer e f r equent l y absent . Coul d not t ax or r ai se ar m es. i St at e Const i t ut i ons
Republ i cani sm . M ost had st r ong gover nor s wi t h vet o power . M ost had bi cam al er l egi sl at ur es. Pr oper t y r equi r ed f or vot i ng. Som had uni ver sal whi t e m e e al suf f r age. M ost had bi l l s of r i ght s. M any had a cont i nuat i on of st at e- est abl i shed r el i gi ons whi l e ot her s di sest abl i shed Occupat i onal Com posi t i on of Sever al St at e Assem i es bl i n t he 1780s Serious Economic Concerns Infant manufacturing sector adversely affected by Grt. Britain's practice of flooding the American market w/ British goods. Infrastructure inadequate for commerce and trade Inflation rampant b/c no uniform currency. Notes often given an arbitrary value by private banks and state gov'ts. Affects business not only w/in a state but b/w states Interstate trade adversely affected by state trade barriers and a vast assortment of currencies Economic depression follows the war and the gov't can do very little W esal e hol Pr i ce I ndex: 1770- 1789 I ndi an Land Cessi ons:
1768- 1799 Nor t hwest Or di nance of 1785 Townships 6 sq miles would be surveyed then divided into sections equaling one square mile. The sections were to be sold in lots of 640 acres at no less than $1 an acre. Land speculators agreed (they had the cash); the average buyer didn't have that amount of cash And certainly no credit! The revenue from the sale of one section for each township would be used to develop public education The Uni t ed St at es i n 1787 The Northwest Ordinance (Land Ordinance of
1787) NW territory would be divided into 3-5 separate territories Methodical process to statehood Unorganized territories would be overseen by Congress Once population reached 5,000 it could be organized into a territory. Residents then elect members to state legislature and send delegate to Congress once population hit 60,000 a constitution would be written and territory could apply for statehood. 5 states: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin Foreign Problems & the AOC US was supposed to compensate loyalists - with what? British still maintaining forts in NW Territory Europe didn't think America was unified - not trade worthy Dispute w/ Spain over borders navigation rights of Mississipi Di sput ed Ter r i t or i al Cl ai m s Bet ween Spai n & t he U. S. :
1783- 1796 Am i can Expor t s, To & er Fr om Br i t ai n: 1783- 1789 Annapol i s Convent i on ( 1786)
At t em i ng t o f i x AOC pr obl em pt s 12 r epr esent at i ves f r om 5 st at es [ NY, NJ, PA, DE, VA] GOAL addr ess bar r i er s t hat l i m t ed t r ade and com er ce i m bet ween t he st at es. Not enough st at es wer e r epr esent ed t o m ake any r eal pr ogr ess. Sent a r epor t t o t he Congr ess t o cal l a m eet i ng of al l t he st at es t o m eet i n Phi l adel phi a t o exam ne ar eas br oader t han i Dani el Shays - f or m er of f i cer sought t o shut down t he cour t s as a f or m of pr ot est and t o pr event t he cont i nued f or ecl osur e of t hei r f ar m & s col l ect i on of t axes W er n M est A Sm l f ar m s anger ed by cr ushi ng al er debt s and t axes. 30% - ei t her sel l t he f ar m or debt or s pr i son. W ant t he st at e t o pr oduce m e m or oney! Shays' Rebel l i on: 1786- 7 Shays' Rebel l i on: 1786- 7 Shays' Rebel l i on: 1786- 7 Ther e coul d be no st r onger evi dence of t he want of ener gy i n our gover nm ent s t han t hese di sor der s. - - Geor ge W ashi ngt on OBVIOUSLY SOMETHING HAS TO BE FIXED! Constitutional Convention 55 delegates mid-summer Philadelphia Father of the Constitution - James Madison No Thomas Paine, Patrick Henry, or Sam Adams (fearful of power increase in central gov't). TJ & John Adams in Europe Why meet? Trade problems? Debt problems? Investments of these wealthy men? Protect private property? Prevent tyranny of majority? Tyranny of minority? Constitutional Convention Bankers (hard money advocates) vs. debtors (cheap money advocates) Northern (commercial) vs. southern (rural slave) economic interests Economic competition b/w states Conflicts b/w states over western land ownership Large states (representation by population) vs. small states (equal representation) Supporters of a strong central gov't vs. supporters of individual & states rights Those w/ democratic ideals vs.aristocratic ideals Constitutional Convention Great Compromise (representation): Va Plan & NJ Plan Commerce Compromise (trade) - South agreed to federal control over foreign and interstate trade; importation of slaves continue for 20 years; fed. Gov't collect import taxes 3/5th Compromise (slave) 3/5ths of slave pop. counts in representation; fugitive slave law means runaways returned back to master Powers of Legislative Branch Congress has power of purse - power to set & collect taxes, borrow money, regulate trade, coin money Congress - postal service, patents, copyrights War must be authorized by Congress Congress is responsible for raising & maintaining army/navy Executive Branch President carries out & enforces laws passed by Congress President can veto congressional bills (Congress can override w/ 2/3rd vote) President makes treaties (Senate accepts/rejects) President is commander in chief of army President appoints fed. judges but Senate must consent Judicial Branch Congress was to establish a Supreme Court and lower courts The kind of cases that could be heard in federal courts was specified The Supreme Court's jurisdiction was outlined Treason was defined Feder al i st vs. Ant i Feder al i st St r onghol ds at t he End of t he W ar Federalists Support mainly from coastal & urban areas and from upper classes merchants, financiers, shippers, planters though not all upperclass citizens were Federalists Washington, Hamilton, Madison, and Franklin They favored strong central gov't to maintain peace and stability and to strengthen the Union Anti-federalists Support from mainly backcountry & agricultural areas, debtors, and people philosophically opposed to a strong central gov't Patrick Henry, John Hancock, Thomas Jefferson, George Mason Oppose a central gov't that did not guarantee protection of individual rights Within weeks after the Constitutional Convention adjourned in September 1787, the articles now called the "Federalist Papers" and the "Anti-Federalist Papers" appeared in New York newspapers. Here was a day-byday debate over the "most important question that was ever proposed . . . to the decision of any people under heaven." Will the proposed Constitution guarantee or destroy liberty? Where will power reside? Who will have it? Who can give it? Who can get it back when lost? Dual in the Press New York was key state Federalist Papers By Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison Beyond the AOC- Underlying premise of their argument: because man is corruptible, he cannot always be trusted to govern himself. Need elaborate constitutional system to prevent rulers from acting arbitrarily and abusive as well as control the passion of the masses Prevent tyranny of majority and tyranny of minority No abuse b/c delegated powers in Constitution Anti-federalist and Bill of Rights Federalists say unnecessary since Congressional members elected No way say anti-federalists. Basic civil rights need to be listed Compromise was BILL OF RIGHTS ADDED TO CONSTITUTION ...
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