Launching the New Ship of State

Launching the New Ship of State - Launching the New Ship of...

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Launching the New Ship of State I. Growing Pains a. Difficulty In Accepting the Constitution i. Thrown off the British yoke and Articles ii. Spent a decade of lawbreaking and constitution smashing iii. Replacing George III was a necessary evil and needed to be distrusted, watched, and curbed b. Population Growth i. 1789 – population was doubling every 25 years ii. 1790 – First official census – 4 million iii. Cities flourished: 1. Philadelphia 42,000 2. New York 33,000 3. Boston 18,000 4. Charleston 16,000 5. Baltimore 13,000 iv. 90% rural v. 5% lived east of the Appalachians 1. Mostly in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio 2. In these areas, Spanish and British agents tried to bribe the areas with gold for their “independence” II. Washington for President a. Washington’s Personality i. Unanimously elected as president (only one) ii. Imposing – 6’2”; 175 lbs iii. Pockmarks from smallpox on nose and cheeks iv. Didn’t take advantage of the office of the president v. Used more common sense and moral character than intelligence b. Washington’s Inauguration i. Traveled from Mount Vernon to New York City ii. Greeted by cannon, bells, flower-carpeted roads, singing, and shouting c. Cabinet i. This is not written in the Constitution, but it is implied (Art II, Sec II, Para I) ii. Cabinet was made up of: 1. Thomas Jefferson (Secretary of State) 2. Alexander Hamilton (Secretary of Treasury) 3. Henry Knox (Secretary of War)
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III. The Bill of Rights a. Drawing A Bill of Rights i. Anti-federalists had sharply criticized the Constitution for its failure to provide guarantees of individual rights such as freedom of religious and trial by jury ii. Many State has ratified the federal Constitution on the understanding that it would soon be amended to include such guarantees, so this was Congress’ top priority b. James Madison & Amending the Constitution i. Fearing that a new convention would unravel the federalist victory in the ratification struggle, James Madison determined to draft the amendments himself ii. He guided them through Congress, where his intellectual and political skills were quickly making him the leading figure c. Bill of Rights Adopted (1791) i. The first 10 amendments ii. Safeguard basic rights: 1. Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, petition 2. Right to bear arms 3. To be tried by a jury 4. Prohibits cruel and unusual punishment d. 9 th Amendment i. To eliminate the danger that people might think that the listed rights were the only ones protected, Madison inserted this amendment, which said that people have rights that aren’t listed e. 10 th Amendment i. In a gesture of reassurance to the advocates of States’ rights, he included this amendment, which reserves all rights not stated directly in the Constitution or prohibited by it to the States or the people f. Judiciary Act of 1789 i. The act: 1. Created federal courts 2. Organized the Supreme Court with a chief justice (John Jay) and 5 associates 3. Organized the federal district and circuit courts 4. Established the office of attorney general IV. Hamilton Revives the Corpse of Public Credit a.
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