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Unformatted text preview: War of 1812 Upsurge of Nationalism Chapter 11 M. Lynde Themes
Theme: The American effort in the war of 1812 was plagued by poor strategy, political divisions, and increasingly aggressive British power. Nevertheless, the U.S. escaped with a stalemated peace settlement, and soon turned its isolationist back to the Atlantic European world. Theme: The aftermath of the War of 1812 produced a strong surge of American nationalism that was reflected in economics, law, and foreign policy. The rising nationalistic spirit and sense of political unity was, however, threatened by the first severe sectional dispute over slavery. Theme: Chief Justice John Marshall's Supreme Court strengthened the federal gov't by supporting a "loose construction" of the Constitution, asserting the federal judiciary's power over state courts, and enforcing economic provisions in the Constitution (interstate commerce, sanctity of contracts.) Presidential Election of 1808 James Madison Becomes President Election of 1808 Jefferson gladly left the "splendid misery" of the highest office James Madison, fellow Virginian, vs. Federalist Charles Pinckney. Federalist made significant gains in Congress & state legislatures James Madison (Democratic Republican) wins the office of President Dolly Madison Key 36 War of 1812
Overview: The nation was poorly prepared for war in 1812. The few Americans successes on the water
did not compensate for failures to successfully invade Canada, and the war ended in a stalemate
Attempts to invade Canada: Americans raided and burned the Canadian capital at York (Toronto) April 1813 On the Niagara border the U.S. was hampered by poor leadership and the refusal of some militia to leave their states Naval War: Victory in single-ship engagements heartened the Americans, but the Royal Navy controlled the Atlantic. Only privateers could elude their blockade. Great Lakes: Control of the Great Lakes was crucial. After furious shipbuilding by both sides, Oliver Hazard Perry won a naval battle on Lake Erie The British and their Indian allies were defeated by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Thames. Tecumseh was killed. Britain: Saw renewed war with America as a frustrating minor conflict compared to its struggle with Napoleon. Napoleon's defeat and exile enabled Britain to send reenforcements to Canada and take the offensive (1814) A naval victory by the Americans on Lake Champlain caused an invading British force to return to Canada British troops, landed below Washington, burned the capital in reprisal for the burning of York. Andrew Jackson: Defeated Creek Indians at Horseshoe Bend Jackson took Pensacola in West Florida British troops sent from the West Indies were defeated when they attacked Jackson's forces (including free blacks) at New Orleans (Jan. 8, 1815). Although occurring after the peace agreement had been signed, the battle of New Orleans gave Americans a sense of victory and speeded ratification of the treaty The (Ghent) peace treaty:Was signed at Ghent, Belgium, Dec. 24, 1814. Both sides, weary of fighting, ignored the causes of the war and restored the status quo (no mention of maritime rights 1. Napoleonic Wars
Q 1806 Berlin Decrees ["Continental System"] Q 1806 Britain issued the "Order in Council." Q 1807 Milan Decrees Q 1808-1811 Britain impressed over 6,000 American sailors. 2. Chesapeake-Leopard "Affair"
Q June 21, 1807. Q Br. Captain fired on the USS Chesapeake. Q 3 dead, 18 wounded. Q Br. Foreign Office said it was a mistake. Q Jefferson's Response: Forbade Br. ships to dock in American ports. Ordered state governors to call up as much as 100,000 militiamen. Chesapeake-Leopard "Affair" 3. The Embargo Act (1807)
The "OGRABME" Turtle Q Forbade export of all goods from the US. Q Unexpected Consequences: Q 1807 exports $108 mil. Q 1808 exports $ 22 mil. 4. The Non-Intercourse Act (1809)
Q Replaced the Embargo Act. Q Reopened trade with all nations EXCEPT Britain and France. Q Remained U. S. policy until 1812. Q Unexpected Consequences: N. Eng. was forced to become self- sufficient again [old factories reopened]. Laid the groundwork for US industrial power. Jefferson, a critic of an industrial America, ironically contributed to Hamilton's view of the US! 5. Br. Instigation of Indians Br i t i sh Gener al Br ock M eet s wi t h Battle of Tippecanoe 1811
1. Western War Hawks eager to wipe out renewed Indian resistance to white settlers in western wilderness 2. Two Shawnee twins - Tecumseh and the Prophet organize confederacy of almost all tribes east of Mississippi (Americans think the British are aiding the Indians) 3. Gen. Wm H Harrison repelled a surprise Indian attack at Tippecanoe (Indiana) Nov. 1811. 4. Significance: Essentially ended the Indian threat in the Old Northwest 5. War Hawks wanted US to attack Canada to remove further Amerindian threats Br. In Canada vulnerable b/c busy fighting Napoleon 6. Southern expansionists desired Sp. Florida, Britain's ally 6. "War Hawks" in Congress
John C. Cal houn [ SC] Henr y Cl ay [ KY] Embargo Act of 1807 Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 Macon's Bill 2 of 1810 James Madison Father of the Constitution (Va. Dynasty) - inherited risky foreign policies Non-Intercourse Act 1809 due to expire. Dangle the Macon's Bill 2 - either Br or Fr repealed its commercial restrictions then U.S. would restore embargo against the other nation Napoleon agreed hoping U.S. would go to war w/ his enemy Britain Madison gave Br. 3 months to end restrictions or U.S. would restore non-importation
-Br. Demanded U.S. w/draw restriction on Br. Until Fr w/drawn restrictions on U.S. shipping -Napoleon had no intention of honoring this *Significance: Br. Had no need to bargain as they controlled the seas. as long as war w/ Fr. was on then U.S. could trade w/ Br or no one! Madison's gamble failed. Madison had to re-establish embargo against Br. This decision ended American neutrality Presidential Election of 1812 "Mr. Madison's War!" Daniel Webster - Federalist from New Hampshire, spoke against entry the war.
Spoke eloquently on behalf of New England manufacturing interests that would suffer from Br. Blockade Webster had ghost written most of John Marshall's opinions American Problems
Q The US was unprepared militarily: Q Had a 12-ship navy vs. Britain's 800 ships. Q Americans disliked a draft preferred to enlist in the disorganized state militias. Q Financially unprepared: Q Flood of paper $. Q Revenue from import tariffs declined. Q Regional disagreements. Why did U.S. fight Britain when France had also assaulted American ships? 1. War Hawks pushed Madison toward war 2. Traditional Republican (Jeffersonian) partiality toward France 3. Visibility of British impressments and arming of Amerindians 4. Chesapeake-Leopard Affair 5. Lure of conquering British Canada: timber, fishing, fur trade
Write this down! Resentful New Englanders Hindered the U.S. Effort
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Believed British actions were exaggerated; still dislike France Write this down! New England merchants were still profitable before the war Opposed acquisition of Canada which would add agrarian states (Jeffersonian) New England investors probably lent more money to Britain than the U.S. New England farmers sent huge quantities of supplies and foodstuffs to Canada, helping Britain invade New York New England states refused to permit their militias to serve outside their states 6. Overview of the War Campaigns of 1813 The White House Is Burning; The British Are Coming, AGAIN!!
(August 24, 1814) The British next moved to take Ft. McHenry near Baltimore, MD. They bombarded the fort with cannonballs fired from land and nearby ships. Aboard the British flagship was an American prisoner of war, Dr. Beanes. A lawyer friend of his, Francis Scott Key, rowed out to the British ships. He asked the British to let Dr. Beanes go. The commander agreed, but said they must remain aboard until morning. Francis Scott Key did not sleep that night as the British guns pounded Ft. McHenry. From the deck of the warship he could see the flash of guns firing away. Could the Americans hold out? During the night, Francis Scott Key asked himself that question many times. Key wrote down his experience in a poem. It was later set to music and is now known as our "StarSpangled Banner." O say can you see, by the dawn's early light, What so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last gleaming, Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight O'er the ramparts we watch'd were so gallantly streaming? (defensive barrier) And the rocket's red glare, the bomb bursting in air, Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there, O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave? The Battle of New Orleans, 1815 Jackson's Florida Campaigns Hartford Convention
December, 1814 January, 1815 Treaty of Ghent December 24, 1814 The st at us quo ant e . Overview of War of 1812
1. Small war - 6,000 Americans killed or wounded (mostly Canadians fought Americans, very few British) 2. One of America's most poorly-fought wars on land Nation militarily unprepared for war Attack on Canada complete failure Washington, DC burned by British British nearly won large territories in NY and NE 3. Nat'l disunity - Federalist undermine war effort - Hartford Convention 1814 4. American victories Andrew Jackson hero (later president) Wm H Harrison hero (later president) 5. War ends in stalemate 6. American gain respect diplomatically and militarily After Treaty of Ghent, British & Americans carry on arms race on Great Lakes but Rush-Bagot agreement 1817 severly limits naval armaments. 7. Gall of Federalists: reduction of sectionalism 8. Large Amerinidian losses during the war Write this dependence on British goods 9. U.S. industry stimulated by less down! 1. Lost vast areas of forested land north of Ohio River CONSIDER To what extend did the U.S. "win" the War of 1812? DBQ You do not have to do an essay Directly answer each question based on that individual document You are required to underline key phrases You are required to bring in relevant information beyond just the documents - information that you have learned through your study. SFI ...
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