Settling the Northern Colonies

Settling the Northern Colonies - Settling the Northern...

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Settling the Northern Colonies I. The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism a. Martin Luther i. Nailed his protests against Catholic doctrines to the door of Wittenberg’s cathedral in 1517 ii. In the protest, he denounced the authority of priests and popes, declaring that the Bible alone was the source of God’s word iii. He ignited a fire of religious reform called the Protestant Reformation b. John Calvin i. Elaborated on Martin Luther’s ideas ii. Calvinism became the dominant theology of the New England Puritans iii. He spelled out his basic doctrine in a Latin tome in 1536, called Institutes of the Christian Religion . He believed that: 1. God was all-powerful, all-good, and all-knowing 2. Because God was all-knowing, He knew who was going to heaven and who was going to hell – called predestination. There was nothing one could do to change their outcome and no one could be certain of their status c. Puritans i. All of the above was happening when King Henry VIII was breaking his ties with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s, making himself the head of the Church of England ii. Religious reformers wanted to undertake a total purification of English Christianity. These people were called Puritans: 1. Came from the depressed woolen districts 2. Calvinism assured even the poor that they could go to heaven 3. Grew increasingly unhappy over the slow progress of the Protestant Reformation d. Separatists i. The most devout Puritans were called Separatists because they vowed to break away entirely from the Church of England ii. They believed that only “visible saints” (persons who felt the stirrings of grace in their souls and could demonstrate its presence to their fellow Puritans) should be admitted to church membership. But, the Church of England enrolled all of the king’s subjects. This meant that the “saints” had to share churches with the “damned.” The Separatists were appalled at this e. King James I i. King James I was the head of England and its church from 1603-1625
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ii. He believed that if his subjects could defy him as their spiritual leader, they might one day defy him as their spiritual leader, they might one day defy him as their political leader (his son, Charles I would be beheaded) iii. As a result, James I harassed the Separatists II. a. Separatists Flee to Holland i. 1608 – The Separatists flee to Holland ii. They didn’t like the “Dutchification” of their children iii. They longed to find a have where they could live and die as purified Protestants b. Mayflower i. The Separatists intend to go to Jamestown ii. They negotiate with the VA Company to settle under their jurisdiction iii. The ship, called the Mayflower, misses its destination (102 people; less than ½ were Separatists; 1 died en route) iv. Chose Plymouth Bay as where they would settle (they became squatters) c. Mayflower Compact i. This was a simple agreement to form a crude government and to submit to the will of the majority under the regulations
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2012 for the course HISTORY 104 taught by Professor Reed during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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Settling the Northern Colonies - Settling the Northern...

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