The Great Depression

The Great Depression - The Great Depression I. The...

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The Great Depression I. The Republican “Old Guard” Returns a. Characteristics of Warren G. Harding i. Was one of the best-liked men of his generation ii. He was easygoing and very kind iii. He hated to hurt people’s feeling by saying no. People capitalized on this weakness iv. His intelligence was mediocre v. He couldn’t tell if someone was lying vi. Promised return to “normalcy” b. What Ideas Did He Represent? i. Opposed to League of Nations ii. Low taxes iii. High tariffs iv. Immigration restrictions v. Aid to farmers c. Cabinet i. Secretary of State 1. Charles Evans Hughes a. Was a brilliant and capable leader ii. Secretary of the Treasury 1. Andrew W. Mellon a. Also was intelligent iii. Secretary of Commerce 1. Herbert Hoover a. Did well as the wartime food administrator iv. Secretary of the Interior 1. Albert B. Fall a. Was a scheming anticonservationist v. Attorney General 1. Harry M. Daugherty a. Was supposed to prosecute wrongdoers, but he himself was a crook II. GOP Reaction At the Throttle a. Old Guard Restored i. The reforms of the progressive era were wiped out under Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover ii. They favored laissez-faire (not only did they want the government to leave business alone, but guide them to making profits) iii. All presidential appointments would favor this policy b. Supreme Court
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i. Appointed 4 of the 9 justices ii. Most were very conservative except for ex- president Taft, who served as chief justice. He performed his duties well and was more liberal than the rest iii. However, the Supreme Court did away with much of the progressive legislation: 1. Killed a federal child-labor law 2. Stripped away many of labor’s gains 3. Restricted government intervention in the economy c. Adkins v. Children’s Hospital (1923) i. Reversed its decision in Muller v. Oregon, which had declared women to be deserving of special protection in the workplace, and invalidated a minimum-wage law for women ii. They ruled this because of the passage of the 19 th Amendment. Now that women were the legal equals of men, they could no longer be protected by special legislation iii. This question would continue to be debated over the rest of the century: 1. Were women sufficiently different from men and if they were, did that merit special legal and social treatment? 2. Affirmative-action policies followed the same question over racial differences d. Big Industrialists i. Antitrust laws were ignored, circumvented, or weakly enforced ii. People were appointed to agencies that were sympathetic to the businesses they were supposed to be regulating iii. Secretary Hoover hated waste resulting from competition and encouraged voluntary cooperation among businesses to make more profits (i.e. - standardize products, publicity campaigns, etc.). He even encouraged companies to regulate themselves
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2012 for the course HISTORY 104 taught by Professor Reed during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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The Great Depression - The Great Depression I. The...

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