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The Native Americans On the Plainsa.Indian Conflict In the Westi.1860 – Native Americans numbered 360,000 – they stood in the way of advancing whitesii.They were no strangers to conflict:1.Comanches – driven the Apaches off the central plains2.Mandans and Chippewas – drove the Cheyenne off their villages3.Sioux – preyed upon the Crows, Kiowas, and Pawneesiii.The Cheyenne and Sioux transformed themselves from crop-growing villagers to nomadic traders and huntersb.Problems That the Whites Causedi.Disease – cholera, typhoid, and smallpoxii.Killed bison, the main food of the Indiansiii.Grazed their livestock on prairie grass, which further shrank the bison populationc.Fort Laramie (1851) and Fort Atkinson (1853)i.Government signed treaties with “chiefs” of various “tribes” at these two places to pacify the Indians. The treaties marked the beginning of the reservation system in the West. They established boundaries for the territory of each tribe and attempted to separate the Indians into two great “colonies” – one to the north (“Great Sioux Reservation” in Dakota Territory) and one to the south (Oklahoma Territory) - inbetween a corridor of white settlementii.Misconceptions of Indians:1.Indians usually lived in scattered bands, not large tribes2.They usually recognized no authority outside their immediate family (not a chief)3.Were alien to the concept of living out one’s life in the confinement of a defined territoryd.Government Corruptioni.Indians surrendered their ancestral lands only when they had received promises from Washington that they would be left alone and provided with food, clothing, and other suppliesii.
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Native Americans in the United States, Sioux, Sitting Bull