The Native Americans On the Plains

The Native Americans On the Plains - The Native Americans...

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The Native Americans On the Plains a. Indian Conflict In the West i. 1860 – Native Americans numbered 360,000 – they stood in the way of advancing whites ii. They were no strangers to conflict: 1. Comanches – driven the Apaches off the central plains 2. Mandans and Chippewas – drove the Cheyenne off their villages 3. Sioux – preyed upon the Crows, Kiowas, and Pawnees iii. The Cheyenne and Sioux transformed themselves from crop-growing villagers to nomadic traders and hunters b. Problems That the Whites Caused i. Disease – cholera, typhoid, and smallpox ii. Killed bison, the main food of the Indians iii. Grazed their livestock on prairie grass, which further shrank the bison population c. Fort Laramie (1851) and Fort Atkinson (1853) i. Government signed treaties with “chiefs” of various “tribes” at these two places to pacify the Indians. The treaties marked the beginning of the reservation system in the West. They established boundaries for the territory of each tribe and attempted to separate the Indians into two great “colonies” – one to the north (“Great Sioux Reservation” in Dakota Territory) and one to the south (Oklahoma Territory) - inbetween a corridor of white settlement ii. Misconceptions of Indians: 1. Indians usually lived in scattered bands, not large tribes 2. They usually recognized no authority outside their immediate family (not a chief) 3. Were alien to the concept of living out one’s life in the confinement of a defined territory d. Government Corruption i. Indians surrendered their ancestral lands only when they had received promises from Washington that they would be left alone and provided with food, clothing, and other supplies ii. Most federal Indian agents were corrupt and
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The Native Americans On the Plains - The Native Americans...

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