The Planting of English America

The Planting of English America - The Planting of English...

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The Planting of English America I. England’s Imperial Stirrings a. England i. King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s ii. This started a war between the Protestants and Catholics (Protestant Reformation) iii. In 1558, Protestantism became dominant in England (Queen Elizabeth) iv. This increased the rivalry with Catholic Spain b. Ireland i. Ireland was under England’s rule ii. Catholic Ireland sought help from Catholic Spain to help them in a revolt against Queen Elizabeth, but Spanish aid never amounted to much iii. In the 1570s and 80s, Elizabeth’s troops crushed the Irish uprising II. Elizabeth Energizes England a. Francis Drake i. Encouraged by the ambitious Queen Elizabeth, hardy English buccaneers now swarmed out upon the sea ii. They plundered Spanish treasure ships and settlements (England and Spain were supposed to be at peace) iii. The most famous of these people was Francis Drake b. Sir Humphrey Gilbert i. Tried to settle in Newfoundland in 1583 ii. Failed when he died c. Sir Walter Raleigh i. Tried to settle in Roanoke Island, off the coast of Virginia in 1585 ii. Failed for unknown reasons d. Spanish Armada i. In 1588, the Spanish Armada of 130 ships went into the English Channel ii. A storm helped scatter and cripple the Spanish fleet iii. Spain would lose control of all of its colonies over the next 300 years iv. England would have naval dominance e. England is Ready to Explore
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i. England was no longer fighting Spain by 1604, when they signed a peace treaty ii. There was a vibrant sense of nationalism and national destiny iii. England now had a sense of religious unity iv. They had a strong leader in Elizabeth I III. England on the Eve of Empire a. Reasons To Explore i. Unemployment 1. Population in England swelled from 3 million in 1550 to 4 million in 1600 2. Landlords were “enclosing” croplands for sheep grazing, forcing many small farmers into tenancy or off the land altogether 3. Thousands of unemployed farmers and the homeless ventured to the New World ii. Religious Freedom 1. To escape persecution by Protestants of Roman Catholics a. Catholics could not get legally married in England iii. 1. Only eldest sons were eligible to inherit landed estates, so many younger sons went to the New World (primogeniture) 2. Joint-stock companies provided people with the financial means to invest in the New World IV. England Plants the Jamestown Seedling a. Virginia Company of London (or London Company) i. Received a charter from King James I for a settlement in the New World 1. He wanted to find gold 2. He also wanted a passage to the Indies ii. Investors put pressure on the colonists to strike it rich quickly and return a profit. Few thought of a long-term colonization b. Jamestown i. Three ships set sail from England in late 1606 (40 died) ii. Settled at Jamestown (in honor of King James I) on May 24, 1607. The site was easy to defend, but mosquito-infested and very unhealthful iii. Settlers died by the dozens from disease
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The Planting of English America - The Planting of English...

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