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The Problems of Peace

The Problems of Peace - The Problems of Peace a Jefferson...

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The Problems of Peace a. Jefferson Davis i. Was arrested and jailed for two years ii. He and his fellow “conspirators” were released because the odds were that no Virginia jury would convict them iii. All rebel leaders were pardoned by President Johnson in 1868. However, civil action was not disallowed until 30 years later b. Destruction in the South i. Cities were destroyed (Charleston, Atlanta, Richmond) ii. Economic life came to a halt 1. Banks and businesses closed 2. Factories weren’t operating or were destroyed 3. Railroad lines were destroyed 4. Agriculture collapsed (no one there to work the land and the Yankees had stolen from farms). They didn’t recover to 1860 production until 1870 5. Aristocracy lost mansions, investments, land, and slaves ($2 billion worth) c. Southern Attitudes i. Many remained defiant and upset ii. Many believed that their view of secession was correct II. Freedmen Define Freedom a. Emancipation i. Took effect unevenly in the Southern States ii. As Union armies marched in and out of various localities, many blacks found themselves emancipated and then reenslaved. Some forcefully reenslaved blacks, while others fought the State legislatures and the Supreme Court iii. Some blacks wanted to remain loyal to their plantation master, while others joined Union troops iv. All slaves owners were eventually forced to recognize their slaves’ freedom. They would assemble their slaves in front of their house and tell them that they were now free b. Reaction To Emancipation i. Many former slaves changed their names and wanted to be addressed as “Mr” or “Mrs” ii. Bought better clothes iii. Searched for their long-lost spouses, parents, and children (emancipation strengthened the black family) iv. Moved to search for opportunity (some steamboat captains refused to transport them)
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c. Church i. As slaves, blacks had worshipped along with whites. Now, they formed their own churches pastured by their own
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