WDSC100-02 - Formation of America's Ancient Forests Photo...

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Formation of America’s Ancient Forests Photo of Athabasca Glacier courtesy of Ellen Hrabovsky
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Books
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and Special Places
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Featured Reference Bonnicksen, Thomas M. 2000. America’s Ancient Forests: From the Ice Age to the Age of Discovery.
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“Forests only exist in human minds. Groups of animals and plants that we call forests come together for a short time; then each species goes its separate way when conditions change.” Thomas M. Bonnicksen, America’s Ancient Forests [p. 15]
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The Beginnings of America’s Forests
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The Pleistocene Epoch
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“Many theories purporting to account for climactic change have been proposed since the scientific study of earth history first began.” E. C. Pielou, After the Ice Age [p. 7]
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Glacial Ages
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The Milankovitch Cycle 100,000 year cycle of glaciations and interglacial periods within a glacial age Caused by the irregular annual orbit of the Earth around the sun We are now in an interglacial period that peaked 10,000 years ago The last glacial maximum was 18,000 years ago
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Other Theories of Climate Variation Solar activity Volcanoes Oceanic “conveyor” that carries warm water along the surface toward the poles and cold water underneath back toward the tropics Atmospheric carbon (greenhouse gases) – perhaps anthropogenic
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Global Temperatures
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this never ending change from the ecological point of view is that, over the time interval we are considering (and probably for the whole of earth’s history), physical conditions on this
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WDSC100-02 - Formation of America's Ancient Forests Photo...

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