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Unformatted text preview: Freedom and Liberty: The Four Migrations from Britain E pluribus unum
"Out of many, one." Featured Reference Fischer, David Hackett. 1989. Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America. "Today, less than 20 percent of the American population have any British ancestors at all. But in a cultural sense most Americans are Albion's seed, no matter who their own forebears may have been."
David Hackett Fischer, Albion's Seed [p. 6] Great Migrations: 1629-1775 East Anglia to Massachusetts: 1629-1640 South and west of England to Virginia: 1642-1675 North Midlands to the Delaware Valley: 16751715 British borderlands to the American backcountry: 1717-1775 1603 Death of Elizabeth I of England James VI of Scotland becomes James I of Great Britain The Puritan's Migration 1629-1640 (11 years) Approximately 21,000 immigrants East Anglia to New England Hospitable climate of New England allowed the population to grow to 100,000 by 1700 [Fischer, p. 17]. The Puritans Congregationalists Believed that the Protestant Reformation was "incomplete" "Middling sorts" "yeomen, husbandmen, artisans, craftsmen, merchants, and traders" [Fischer, p. 27]. Charles I Ascended to the throne in 1625. Married to the Roman Catholic princess of France Restored church ceremonies opposed by Puritans Dismissed Puritan clergy from the Church of England 1629: Dissolved Parliament and assumed sole rule over the Kingdom. The Winthrop Fleet: 1630 John Winthrop Puritan clergyman Leader and organizer of the Great Migration Seventeen ships carried immigrants to Massachusetts New England Yankees settled the northern tier of states to the coast of California New England Towns and Fields Formed corporate groups to found towns Towns were laid out around a "commons" or "green" for pasturing livestock, conducting public markets, and drilling the militia Public buildings - a church, town hall, and tavern were typically built adjacent to the green Fields typically surrounded the town The "Ordered Liberty" of the Puritans Community liberty and the corporation Intellectual elites New England tradition of reform movements Puritanism Religious freedom (Rhode Island) Abolition and feminism Conservation Public land: common ownership for the common good Rule by the People
"We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union..." The Cavalier's Migration 1642-1675 (33 years) Approximately 45,000 immigrants South and West of England to the Chesapeake Bay Religion: Anglican Sir William Berkeley 1641: appointed Royal Governor of Virginia by Charles I Berkeley was from a wealthy and aristocratic Gloucestershire family from the West Country of England Loyal to Charles I English Civil War 1649: Oliver Cromwell and his Puritan "Roundheads" deposed and executed Charles I Virginia became a refuge for Cavalier families In 1642, Berkeley's first year as Royal Governor, Virginia's population was approximately 8,000 By Berkeley's death in 1676, Virginia's population had grown to 40,000 [Fischer, p. 210] Cavaliers settled the Carolina and Georgia Tidewater region and established the plantation-based economies of the Deep South. The Plantation South Estates of 250 to 1,000 acres Towns, per se, were not as common in the Tidewater Tobacco economy powered by slave labor Woodlands were maintained as parks for the sport of gentlemen in both England and Virginia. (One of Virginia's elite sons, George Washington, was an excellent horseman whose skills were honed in the fox hunts of his youth.) The "Heirachical Liberty" of the Cavaliers "I love liberty. I hate equality." Feudalism Classes Royalist Gentry (Cavaliers) Laborers and servants More than 75% of Virginia's immigrants arrived as indentured servants [Fischer, p. 227] Slaves Federalism
"Where an excess of power prevails, property of no sort is duly respected. No man is safe in his opinions, his person, his faculties, or his possessions."
James Madison Separation of Powers Three branches of Government Legislative (Article I) Executive (Article II) Judicial (Article III) "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people." The Friends' Migration 1675-1715 (40 years) Approximately 23,000 immigrants Origin: North Midlands Sea Links: Atlantic ports Religion: Society of Friends (Quakers) Ethnicity: Vikings Destination: Delaware Valley Charles II Great Britain restored the throne in 1660 "Clarendon Code" anti-Puritan laws Quaker migration driven by persecution and by Church Taxes they refused to pay William Penn Aristocrat and former soldier who converted Penn founded a colony that was devoted to religious tolerance and welcomed a diverse group of immigrants Delaware Valley Most important entry point: Philadelphia Little or no migration beyond the Delaware Valley Associated migration of German Pietist Sects Overtaken in numbers by the Revolution, and much later, in influence by other groups Powerful Quaker cultural influences still exist in eastern Pennsylvania Penn's Townships William Penn envisioned "loving neighborhoods" The people of the Delaware Valley, instead built their farms in clusters but did not follow Penn's pattern of clusters of farm houses Ridge and valley district of central Pennsylvania The "Spiritual Liberty" of the Friends Piety and simplicity were the paths to true freedom Religious and ethnic tolerance Abolition of slavery in Pennsylvania Essential Freedoms
"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances." The execution of Mary Dyer, Boston, 1660 The Borderer's Migration 1717-1775 (57 years) Approximately 250,000 immigrants The Anglo-Scottish border & Northern Ireland to the American Backcountry Not an organized migration The Anglo-Scottish Border Ethnic "melting pot" of Picts, Celts, Angles, Saxons, Vikings, and Normans The front lines of more than 3 centuries of cruel warfare between England and Scotland Famine, violence and grinding poverty Powerful surname groups (tribal society) Three Centuries of War Scottish Wars of Independence: 12961328 & 1332-1357 Death of Alexander III, King of Scotland: 1286 "Braveheart" 1314: Bannockburn Warfare at different levels of feudal society Role of the Borderers: Light Cavalry Fast reaction to invasion Scouts Raids disrupt enemy intentions Reivers Who were the Reivers? Criminals or patriots? Warrior culture The shock troops of the border light cavalry More loyal to family than to king or country All levels of border society The foray (a matter of survival?) Why? They were too often used as pawns in the schemes of nobility End of the Border James VI/I eliminates and "pacifies" the border The fate of the Grahams and the Armstrongs The Ulster Plantations Later migration driven by famine in Northern Ireland The Backcountry Claim by "tomahawk right" Isolated farms or clusters of farms Highly mobile people Migration into western Pennsylvania, then through the Appalachians, and west The "Individual Liberty" of the Backcountry Mistrust of government "Leave us alone" The military tradition: "Don't tread on me" Assimilation & loss of ethnic identity 18 U.S. presidents were descended from borderers Protection from Tyranny
"No person shall be... deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation." "In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury..." A Common Vision The Revolutionary Principle
"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." Right vs. Left (It wasn't what you think) Current meanings - conservative and liberal -first appeared in Germany before World War II At the time of the founding of the U.S.A., "right" meant a ruler made law (tyranny); "left" meant absence of law (anarchy) The founders envisioned a government where the people ruled Government by the People "Natural Law" Marcus Tullius Cicero John Locke William Blackstone Economic freedom Adam Smith Rule by the people Jean Jacques Rousseau Edmund Burke Constitutional Government ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2012 for the course HISTORY 104 taught by Professor Reed during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.
- Spring '11