Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine

Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine - Whitney Ends the Fiber...

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Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine a. Samuel Slater – Father of the Factory System i. A skilled British mechanic ii. He went to America and was paid a bounty for memorizing how to create textile machines iii. In 1791, he put into operation the first efficient American machinery for spinning cotton thread b. Eli Whitney i. Handpicking seeds from cotton was a long, arduous process. It made cotton cloth expensive and rare ii. Whitney graduated from Yale iii. Was told that the poverty of the South would be relieved if someone could only invent a workable device for separating the seed from the short-staple cotton fiber c. Results of the Cotton Gin i. 1793 – He built a crude machine called the cotton gin (short for engine) that was 50x more effective than the handpicking process ii. Cotton became highly profitable in the South “Few machines have ever wrought so wondrous a change” – according to American Pageant iii. As a result, slavery, which had been dying out, made a comeback iv. Planters drove westward into Alabama and Mississippi v. Cotton would go to the North for Yankee spindles – New England, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania created factories d. Why Did Cotton Go To New England? i. Stony soil made it difficult to farm, so it made manufacturing attractive ii. Had a dense population that provided labor and accessible markets iii. Seaports were closeby to import the cotton and export the finished product iv. Rivers provided water power to turn the machines v. 1860 – 400+ million pounds of cotton went to New England mills IX. Marvels in Manufacturing a. Manufacturing Takes Off i. In the early 1800s, manufacturing picked up because: 1. Embargo 2. Nonintercourse
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3. War of 1812 4. Promotion of goods picked up – “Buy American” or “Wear American” slogans were popular 5. Increasing patriotism caused people to buy American b. Manufacturing Diminishes i. X. Workers and “Wage Slaves” a. Factory System i. Manufacturing had been done in the home or small shop --- now it was in a factory (couldn’t maintain an intimate relationship with the workers as much anymore) ii. Bosses got rich iii. Workers worked: 1. Long hours 2. Had low wages 3. Meals were skimpy 4. Unsanitary buildings 5. Poorly ventilated, lighted, and heated 6. Forbidden by law to form labor unions to raise wages (thought was related to criminal conspiracy) iv. Make strikes resulted
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Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine - Whitney Ends the Fiber...

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