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Unit 3 History Notes

Unit 3 History Notes - Unit 3 American Civilizations Mayan...

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Unit 3 American Civilizations Mayan Civilization (300-900 CE) - Location : Yucatan Peninsula Mayans did not have an entire civilization in Yucatan Peninsula. Had city states such as Chitzaneza. Astronomy and Calendar -seemed fascinated by the phenomena of passing time -looked at the stars -Mayan calendar is very accurate Writings -many writings were carved on stone -used to record what was happening Math -based on 20 Mayan City States -buildings are aligned to the stars Religion Bloodlettings- Human blood was taken from the body and put on paper. The paper with blood was then burned and the smoke was a way of communicating to the gods. -usually performed by using rope with thorn piercings through the tongue (most sacred offering) Theories of Mayan Decline -Warfare: Mayans fought against themselves -Environmental Theory: environmental disasters, bad soil Aztec Civilization - Location : Mexico Tenochitilan : -located in the middle of the lake. -waterways were used to move around -flourished after the arrival of the Europeans
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Militant Culture -Aztecs were militant because of their need to sacrifice Aztec Rituals -crucial part of sustaining the world; if ritual wasn’t performed, the Aztecs thought the world would end (thought they were in the 5 th world) -cutting heart out of victim and submitted to sun god -daily ritual -rituals were performed to postpone the destruction of the world by appeasing the sun god Myth of Quetzalcoatl (“feathered serpent”) -prophecy to come back to the Aztec lands -characterized by having fair skin -(Europeans were mistaken by the “fair skin one” The Europeans were afraid of the Aztecs; however, the Europeans had an advantage: -Europeans had weapons and horses -most powerful weapon Europeans brought was disease Hernan Cortes seized the Aztec emperor, Moteecuzoma, and the Spanish forces drove the Aztecs out of their land. Incan Civilization -Location: Peru in the Andes -the longest Pre-Columbian American civilization -used their temperate zone to their advantage to cultivate crops such as corn -cities were usually found at the top of the mountain Machu Pichu (“Old Mountain”) -built at the height of the Incan empire -abandoned after the arrival of the Spaniards -the walls were built by using stones to flatten other stones Brain Surgery -used for healing The Incas did not develop a system of writing Quipu: a series of ropes for record keeping The Incan civilization declined after the arrival of the Europeans. The Europeans destroyed the Incas. Francisco Pizzaro and the conquistadors killed many Incans. Pizzaro spared the Incan ruler, Atahualpa, until he delivered a large quantity of gold to Pizzaro. The Incan ruler was then killed.
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Age of Global Integration (1400s-1763) -Also referred to as the age of exploration, age of old imperialism Exploration was risky b/c explorers had no knowledge of geography Motives for Exploration: Three G’s 1) Gold = “wealth” -economic motive -spices: brought a lot of wealth in the 1400s -many spices come from Southeast Asia 2) God = missionary activities
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