Chapter 09

# Chapter 09 - Chapter 9 Introducing Probability Essential...

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Essential Statistics Chapter 9 1 Chapter 9 Introducing Probability

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Essential Statistics Chapter 9 2 Idea of Probability Probability is the science of chance behavior Chance behavior is unpredictable in the short run but has a regular and predictable pattern in the long run this is why we can use probability to gain useful results from random samples and randomized comparative experiments
Essential Statistics Chapter 9 3 Randomness and Probability Random : individual outcomes are uncertain but there is a regular distribution of outcomes in a large number of repetitions Relative frequency (proportion of occurrences) of an outcome settles down to one value over the long run. That one value is then defined to be the probability of that outcome.

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Essential Statistics Chapter 9 4 Relative-Frequency Probabilities Can be determined (or checked) by observing a long series of independent trials (empirical data) experience with many samples simulation (computers, random number tables)
Essential Statistics Chapter 9 5 Relative-Frequency Probabilities Coin flipping:

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Essential Statistics Chapter 9 6 Probability Models The sample space S of a random phenomenon is the set of all possible outcomes. An event is an outcome or a set of outcomes (subset of the sample space). A probability model is a mathematical description of long-run regularity consisting of a sample space S and a way of assigning probabilities to events.
7 Probability Model for Two Dice Random phenomenon: roll pair of fair dice. Sample space

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Chapter 09 - Chapter 9 Introducing Probability Essential...

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