GEOG class notes chapter 4

GEOG class notes chapter 4 - 1) Introduction -Crossroads...

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1) Introduction -Crossroads between Asia, Africa, and Europe -Ancient civilizations -Most of the world's oil reserves -Fertile Crescent - Tigris/Euphrates Rivers -Predominantly Islamic 2) Landforms I. Importance of river and coastal landscapes -Rivers -Coasts II. Tectonic Activity -Lots of plate activity III. Physiographic Regions A. Mountain North B. Desert/semi-desert 3) Climate I.Mid-latitude climates II. Aridity 4) Environmental History Like Europe, this region has been settled and cultivated for millennia. -overexploitation 5) Region in the World-System I. Early Empires (approx. 3000B.C. - approx. 1200) -Rich cultures, intellectually sophisticated -Mixing of ideas, goods, and people throughout the region over the centuries
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-Source for three world religions - Christianity, Islam, and Judaism II. Ottoman Empire (approx. 1200 - 1919) -Successor to the Byzantine Empire based in Constantinople -Turkish Muslims took over most of the entire region -Religiously tolerant -The Ottoman Empire joined Germany and Austria-Hungary in World War I. ..and lost III. Inter-war Period (1919 - 1945) -Ottoman Empire was carved up among the victors of WWI -Mandates: areas generally administered by an occupying power with the promise and preparation for self-government and future independence -Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia became fully independent states in the 1920's and 1930's -Balfour Declaration (1917) IV. Independence/Modern Statehood -During WWII, Europe was unable to care for or control its possessions in the region
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GEOG class notes chapter 4 - 1) Introduction -Crossroads...

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