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58207 - Cooperative Localization for Autonomous Underwater...

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Cooperative Localization for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Citation Bahr, Alexander, John J. Leonard, and Maurice F. Fallon. “Cooperative Localization for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles.” The International Journal of Robotics Research 28.6 (2009): 714 -728. As Published http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0278364908100561 Publisher Sage Publications Version Author's final manuscript Accessed Mon Aug 22 02:50:05 EDT 2011 Citable Link http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/58207 Terms of Use Article is made available in accordance with the publisher's policy and may be subject to US copyright law. Please refer to the publisher's site for terms of use. Detailed Terms
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1 Cooperative Localization for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Alexander Bahr, John J. Leonard, Maurice F. Fallon Abstract This paper describes an algorithm for distributed acoustic navigation for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). Whereas typical AUV navigation systems utilize pre-calibrated arrays of static transponders, our work seeks to create a fully mobile network of AUVs that perform acoustic ranging and data exchange with one another to achieve cooperative positioning for extended duration missions over large areas. The algorithm enumerates possible solutions for the AUV trajectory based on dead-reckoning and range-only measurements provided by acoustic modems that are mounted on each vehicle, and chooses the trajectory via minimization of a cost function based on these constraints. The resulting algorithm is computationally efficient, meets the strict bandwidth requirements of available AUV modems, and has potential to scale well to networks of large numbers of vehicles. The method has undergone extensive experimentation, and results from three different scenarios are reported in this paper, each of which utilizes MIT SCOUT Autonomous Surface Craft (ASC) as convenient platforms for testing. In the first experiment, we utilize three ASCs, each equipped with a Woods Hole acoustic modem, as surrogates for AUVs. In this scenario, two ASCs serve as Communication/Navigation Aids (CNAs) for a third ASC that computes its position based exclusively on GPS positions of the CNAs and acoustic range measurements between platforms. In the second scenario, an undersea glider is used in conjunction with two ASCs serving as CNAs. Finally, in the third experiment, a Bluefin12 AUV serves as the target vehicle. All three experiments demonstrate the successful operation of the technique with real ocean data. Index Terms autonomous underwater vehicles, cooperative navigation, mobile robotics, sensor networks I. I NTRODUCTION The absence of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals underwater makes navigation for Autonomous Under- water Vehicles (AUVs) a difficult challenge. Without an external reference in the form of acoustic beacons at known positions, the vehicle has to rely on proprioceptive information obtained through a compass, a Doppler Velocity Logger (DVL) or an Inertial Navigation System (INS) [WYSH00]. Independent of the quality of the sensors used, the error in the position estimate based on dead-reckoning information grows without bound. Typical navigation
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