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4 - Rhythmic Gene expression, Gall, C.

4 - Rhythmic Gene expression, Gall, C. - Article 4 Rhythmic...

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Article 4 Rhythmic gene expression in pituitary depends in herterologous sensitization by the neurohormone melatonin Abstract -mammalian daily cycles are driven by a circadian clock -clock is based on the cell-autonomous rhythmic expression of clock genes -cycling expression of Period 1 (a clock gene) in the pituatory gland depends on heterologous sensitization of the adenosine A 2b receptor -this happens by the nighttime activation of the melatonin mt1 receptors -eliminating melatonin suppresses the expression of Period 1 and increases the release of prolactin from the pituitary Introduction -if gene expression in not temporally correct, cellular malfunction and disease can result -hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN): -partitions metabolic functions in 24 hour cycle -24 hour rhythm is regulated by transcription/translation feedback loops -PERIOD in humans in a transcription/translation feedback loop -PERIPHERAL RHYTHMS: -circadian rhythms are not limited to the cells of the SCN, they can be found in many tissues, but with a delayed timing with respect to the SCN -peripheral rhythms dampen in vitro after a few cycles b/c they depend on neuronal and/or neuroendocrine signals from the SCN -when the SCN and peripheral clock-controlled genes are not in synch, jet-lag and shift-work pathologies result -both neural and endocrine pathways can maintain circadian gene expression in the periphery: - Period (Per) gene rhythms can be regulated by glucocorticoids and cycles of restricted feeding in rodents
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