LECTURE-6_Nucleic Acids

LECTURE-6_Nucleic Acids - Remember EXAM #1 is approaching...

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Remember EXAM #1  is approaching - rapidly. 
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Macromolecules  Lecture #6 Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA Campbell and Reece Chapter 5; pp 86 - 91
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OBJECTIVES 1. Recognize the structures of the nucleotide monomers  and name them. 2. Know the structural differences between RNA and  DNA. 3. Understand Chargaff’s Rules.  4. Describe the structure of DNA. 5. Describe how the structure of DNA is different from  RNA.
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The Nucleic Acids - 1 Nucleotides have three components: (1) a nitrogenous (nitrogen containing) base (2) a pentose sugar (3) a phosphate Nucleotide monomers are the building blocks of  nucleic acids.
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Nucleic Acids - 2 The nitrogenous bases are derivatives of two parent  heterocyclic compounds: (1) pyrimidine (2) purine
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Heterocyclic Rings
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Sugars (review) Sugars are poly-hydroxy aldehydes or ketones. Among the most common in biology are the hexoses and  pentoses: Glucose is a hexose containing 6 carbon atoms. Ribose is pentose containing 5 carbon atoms  (RNA and DNA). Monosaccharides = one sugar unit. polysaccharides = many sugar units. 
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RIBOSE
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RNA DNA
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Nucleic Acids - 4 Each nitrogenous base is covalently linked to  the ribose sugar through a bond denoted as the  N- β -glycosyl bond. 
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Nucleotide Structure N- β -glycosyl bond
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Nucleotide Ribose Deoxyribose P O O O O Phosphate group O N 4 3 2 1 5 Nitrogenous base 5-carbon sugar O O H H H OH H H OH HO 5 CH 2 OH 2 C H H H OH OH H N O H N NH 2 Pyrimidines NH O H N O NH 2 N N N H N Cytosine (C) Adenine (A) Uracil (U) Purines Thymine (T) Guanine (G) H 3 C NH N H H N N NH 2 NH O N C 3 4 C 1 C 2 C C 3 1 C 4 C HO 5 CH 2 O O Remember, RNA contains “U”, DNA contains “T”.
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A small “d” indicates deoxy. Example dTMP is Deoxythymidine monophosphate.
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LECTURE-6_Nucleic Acids - Remember EXAM #1 is approaching...

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