32_lecture - Chapter 32 Nonspecific(Innate Host Resistance...

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Chapter 32 Nonspecific (Innate)  Host Resistance 1
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2 Airway cilia M.pneumoniae Normal bronchiole
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most pathogens (disease causing microbes) must overcome surface barriers and reach underlying  tissue overcome resistance by host nonspecific resistance specific immune response 3 Host Resistance Overview
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immune system composed of widely distributed cells, tissues, and  organs recognizes foreign substances or microbes and  acts to neutralize or destroy them immunity ability of host to resist a particular disease or  infection immunology science concerned with immune responses 4 Host Resistance Overview…
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nonspecific immune response also called  nonspecific resistance innate immunity and  natural immunity acts as a first line of defense offers resistance to any microbe or foreign material lacks immunological memory  5 Immunity
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specific immune response also called acquired immunity, adaptive  immunity, and specific immunity resistance to a particular foreign agent has “memory” effectiveness increases on repeated exposure to  agent the two types of responses usually work  together  6 Immunity
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7 Figure 32.1
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recognized as foreign invoke immune responses presence of antigen in body ultimately  results in B cell activation     production  of antibodies antibodies bind to specific antigens, inactivating  or eliminating them other immune cells also become activated name comes from antibody generators 8 Antigens
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white blood cells (WBCs) play a major role in  the innate and specific responses hematopoesis development of white blood cells in bone marrow of  mammals WBCs that mature prior to leaving bone marrow, e.g.,  macrophages and dendritic cells, become part of innate  immune system and will respond to all antigens WBCs that are not fully functional after leaving bone marrow  become part of the adaptive immune response, e.g., B and  T cells and could differentiate in response to specific  antigens  9 White Blood Cells of Innate and  Adaptive Immunity
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effectiveness impacted by: direct factors nutrition, physiology, fever, age, and genetics indirect factors personal hygiene, socioeconomic status, and living  conditions 10 Physical Barriers in Nonspecific  (Innate) Resistance
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along with host’s secretions (flushing) these  barriers are the first line of defense against  microbes 11 Physical and Mechanical  Barriers
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strong mechanical barrier to microbial  invasion keratin produced by keratinocytes in outer  layer inhospitable environment for microbes attached organisms removed by shedding of 
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