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33_lecture - Chapter 33 Specific(Adaptive Immunity 1...

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Chapter 33 Specific (Adaptive)  Immunity 1
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three major functions recognize nonself respond to nonself effector response eliminates or renders foreign material harmless anamnestic response upon second encounter with same pathogen immune system  mounts a faster and more intense response  remember nonself 2 Overview of Specific (Adaptive)  Immunity
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3 Four Characteristics of  Specific Immunity  discrimination between self and non-self adaptive immunity almost always responds  selectively to non-self, producing specific  responses against the stimulus diversity adaptive immunity generates an enormous  diversity of molecules, e.g., antibodies that  recognize trillions of different foreign  substances 
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4 Four Characteristics of  Specific Immunity… specificity adaptive immunity can be directed against  one specific pathogen or foreign substance  among trillions  memory the adaptive immunity response to a  second exposure to a pathogen is so fast  that there is no noticeable pathogenesis
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humoral immunity also called antibody-mediated immunity based on antibody activity cellular immunity also called cell-mediated immunity based on action of specific kinds of T lymphocytes 5 Types of Specific Immunity
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6 Figure 33.1
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self and nonself substances that elicit an immune response and  react with products of that response antigenic determinant sites (epitopes) site on antigen that reacts with specific antibody or T cell  receptor valence is number of epitopes and determines number of  antibodies that can combine with antigen at one time  antibody affinity strength with which antibody binds to its antigen at a given  antigen-binding site avidity of antibody overall antigen-binding at all antigen binding sites 7 Antigens
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8 Figure 33.2
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small organic molecules not antigenic but may become antigenic when  bound to larger carrier molecule e.g., penicillin may elicit hapten specific and carrier specific  responses 9 Haptens
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naturally acquired active immunity type of specific (adaptive) immunity a host  develops after exposure to foreign  substance or after transfer of antibodies or  lymphocytes from an immune donor naturally acquired passive immunity transfer of antibodies, e.g., mother to fetus  across placenta, mother to infant in breast  milk 10 Types of Specific Immunity
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artificially acquired active immunity results from vaccination – intentional  exposure to a foreign material  artificially acquired passive immunity preformed antibodies or lymphocytes  produced by one host are introduced into  another host e.g., gamma globulin, bone marrow  transplant 11 Types of Specific Immunity
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12 Figure 33.3
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