33_lecture - Chapter 33 Specific (Adaptive) Immunity 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 33 Specific (Adaptive) Immunity 1 three major functions recognize nonself respond to nonself effector response eliminates or renders foreign material harmless anamnestic response upon second encounter with same pathogen immune system mounts a faster and more intense response remember nonself 2 Overview of Specific (Adaptive) Immunity 3 Four Characteristics of Specific Immunity discrimination between self and non-self adaptive immunity almost always responds selectively to non-self, producing specific responses against the stimulus diversity adaptive immunity generates an enormous diversity of molecules, e.g., antibodies that recognize trillions of different foreign substances 4 Four Characteristics of Specific Immunity specificity adaptive immunity can be directed against one specific pathogen or foreign substance among trillions memory the adaptive immunity response to a second exposure to a pathogen is so fast that there is no noticeable pathogenesis humoral immunity also called antibody-mediated immunity based on antibody activity cellular immunity also called cell-mediated immunity based on action of specific kinds of T lymphocytes 5 Types of Specific Immunity 6 Figure 33.1 self and nonself substances that elicit an immune response and react with products of that response antigenic determinant sites (epitopes) site on antigen that reacts with specific antibody or T cell receptor valence is number of epitopes and determines number of antibodies that can combine with antigen at one time antibody affinity strength with which antibody binds to its antigen at a given antigen-binding site avidity of antibody overall antigen-binding at all antigen binding sites 7 Antigens 8 Figure 33.2 small organic molecules not antigenic but may become antigenic when bound to larger carrier molecule e.g., penicillin may elicit hapten specific and carrier specific responses 9 Haptens naturally acquired active immunity type of specific (adaptive) immunity a host develops after exposure to foreign substance or after transfer of antibodies or lymphocytes from an immune donor naturally acquired passive immunity transfer of antibodies, e.g., mother to fetus across placenta, mother to infant in breast milk 10 Types of Specific Immunity artificially acquired active immunity results from vaccination intentional exposure to a foreign material artificially acquired passive immunity preformed antibodies or lymphocytes produced by one host are introduced into another host e.g., gamma globulin, bone marrow transplant 11 Types of Specific Immunity 12 Figure 33.3...
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33_lecture - Chapter 33 Specific (Adaptive) Immunity 1...

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