35_lecture - Chapter 35 Clinical Microbiology and...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 35 Clinical Microbiology and Immunology 1 clinical microbiologist ◦ major function is to isolate and identify microbes from clinical specimens rapidly clinical specimen ◦ portion or quantity of human material that is tested, examined, or studied to determine the presence or absence of specific microbes 2 Overview of the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory numerous methods used; choice of method depends on specimen ◦ specimen should represent the diseased area ◦ quantity should be adequate ◦ collection to avoid contamination ◦ proper container, promptly sent to laboratory ◦ obtain specimen before antimicrobial treatment 3 Specimen Collection safety concerns ◦ Standard Microbiological Practices have been established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) specimen should: ◦ represent diseased area and other appropriate sites ◦ be large enough for carrying out a variety of diagnostic tests ◦ be collected in a manner that avoids contamination ◦ be forwarded promptly to clinical lab ◦ be obtained prior to administration of antimicrobial agents, if possible 4 Working with Specimens are minimum guidelines that should be supplemented with other precautions based on exposure risks and lab biosafety level regulations goal is to protect workers from contact with agents by their taking precautions and by their working in a safe laboratory environment 5 Standard Microbiological Practices e.g., workers can limit their contact with microbes by not eating or smoking in lab and by preventing injuries caused by sharp objects e.g., coverings such as lab coats and bandages should be used e.g., workers should know how to use emergency eye wash and shower stations e.g., work space should be disinfected e.g., hands should be washed thoroughly after any exposure and before leaving lab 6 Standard Microbiological Practices… recommended guidelines for additional precautions reflect the laboratory’s biosafety level (BSL) ◦ BSL 1 – not known to cause disease in healthy adults ◦ BSL 2 – associated with human disease ◦ BSL 3 – disease may have serious or lethal consequences ◦ BSL 4 – agent poses high risk of life- threatening disease 7 Biosafety Levels preliminary or definitive identification of microbe based on numerous types of diagnostic procedures ◦ microscopy ◦ growth and biochemical characteristics ◦ immunologic tests ◦ bacteriophage typing ◦ molecular methods 8 Identification of Microorganisms from Specimens Microscopy Bacteria Fungi Viruses Parasites 9 wet-mount, heat-fixed, or chemically...
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2012 for the course BIO 326R taught by Professor Whiteley during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.

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35_lecture - Chapter 35 Clinical Microbiology and...

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