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34_lecture - Chapter 34 Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1...

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Chapter 34 Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1
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chemical agents used to treat disease destroy pathogenic microbes or inhibit their  growth within host most are antibiotics microbial products or their derivatives that kill  susceptible microbes or inhibit their growth 2 Chemotherapeutic Agents
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3 Figure 34.1
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selective toxicity ability of drug to kill or inhibit pathogen while  damaging host as little as possible therapeutic dose drug level required for clinical treatment toxic dose drug level at which drug becomes too toxic for  patient (i.e., produces side effects) therapeutic index ratio of toxic dose to therapeutic dose 4 General Characterisitics of  Antimicrobial Drugs
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side effects – undesirable effects of  drugs on host cells  narrow-spectrum drugs – attack only a  few different pathogens broad-spectrum drugs – attack many  different pathogens cidal agent - kills microbes  static agent - inhibits growth of  microbes 5 General Characteristics of  Antimicrobial Drugs…
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effect of an agent may vary with concentration, microbe, host effectiveness expressed in two ways minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) lowest concentration of drug that inhibits growth of  pathogen minimal lethal concentration (MLC) lowest concentration of drug that kills pathogen 6 General Characteristics of  Antimicrobial Drugs…
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dilution susceptibility tests for MIC disk diffusion tests – Kirby Bauer the E-test MIC and diffusion 7 Determining the Level of  Antimicrobial Activity
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involves inoculating media containing different  concentrations of drug broth or agar with lowest concentration  showing no growth is MIC if broth used, tubes showing no growth can be  subcultured into drug-free medium broth from which microbe can’t be recovered  is MLC 8 Dilution Susceptibility Tests
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disks impregnated with specific drugs are  placed on agar plates inoculated with test  microbe drug diffuses from disk into agar, establishing  concentration gradient observe clear zones (no growth) around disks  9 Disk Diffusion Tests
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10 Table 34.2
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standardized method for carrying out  disk diffusion test sensitivity and resistance determined  using tables that relate zone diameter to  degree of microbial resistance table values plotted and used to  determine if concentration of drug  reached in body will be effective 11 Kirby-Bauer Method
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12 Figure 34.2
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13 Figure 34.3
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convenient for use with anaerobic pathogens similar to disk diffusion method, but uses strip  rather than disk E-test strips contain a gradient of an antibiotic intersection of elliptical zone of inhibition with  strip indicates MIC 14 The E Test
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15 Figure 34.4
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