37_lecture - Chapter 37 Human Diseases Caused by Viruses...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 37 Human Diseases Caused by Viruses and Prions 1 when human is source, airborne viruses are propelled from respiratory tract by coughing, sneezing, or vocalizing 2 Airborne Diseases DNA virus, member of Herpesviridae humans serve as reservoir and source acquired by droplet inhalation into respiratory system chickenpox ◦ results from initial infection ◦ vaccine prevents or shortens illness 3 Chickenpox (Varicella) and Shingles (Herpes Zoster) 4 Figure 37.1 shingles (herpes zoster; postherpetic neuralgia) ◦ reactivated form of chickenpox virus resides in cranial and sensory neurons reactivation - virus migrates down neuron treatment ◦ supportive; and others 5 Chickenpox (Varicella) and Shingles (Herpes Zoster)… 6 Figure 37.2 respiratory system disease caused by influenza virus ◦ RNA virus; acquired by inhalation or ingestion of respiratory secretions classified into subtypes based on hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), membrane surface glycoproteins ◦ HA and NA function in viral attachment and virulence ◦ 16 HA and 9 NA antigenic forms are known; they recombine to produce HA/NA influenza subtypes 7 Influenza (Flu) an important feature of the influenza viruses is the frequency with which changes in antigenicity occur ◦ antigenic drift – due to accumulation of mutations in a strain within a geographic area ◦ antigenic shift – due to reassortment of genomes when two different strains of flu viruses (from humans and animals) infect the same cell and are incorporated into a single new capsid (bird flu, swine flu) 8 Influenza (Flu)… clinical manifestations ◦ chills, fever, headache, malaise, and general muscular aches and pains ◦ recovery usually within 3 to 7 days ◦ often leads to secondary infections by bacteria treatment, prevention, and control ◦ rapid immunologic tests ◦ symptomatic/supportive therapy ◦ inactivated virus vaccine 9 Influenza (Flu)… Measles (Rubeola) measles ◦ rash caused by measles virus (RNA virus) ◦ enters body through respiratory tract subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ◦ rare progressive degeneration of central nervous system caused by measles virus treatment, prevention, and control ◦ symptomatic/supportive therapy ◦ attenuated measles vaccine MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, rubella) 10 11 Figure 37.4 caused by mumps virus, RNA virus clinical manifestations ◦ develop 16–18 days after infection ◦ fever, and swelling and tenderness of salivary glands ◦ complications include meningitis and orchitis (inflammation of testis) treatment, prevention, and control ◦ symptomatic/supportive therapy ◦ live, attenuated vaccine (MMR) 12 Mumps…...
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2012 for the course BIO 326R taught by Professor Whiteley during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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37_lecture - Chapter 37 Human Diseases Caused by Viruses...

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