38_lecture - Chapter 38 Human Diseases Caused by Bacteria 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 38 Human Diseases Caused by Bacteria 1 most involve the respiratory system some are skin diseases 2 Airborne Diseases caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae gram-positive lysogenized strains produce an exotoxin that inhibits protein synthesis and is responsible for pathogenesis resistant to drying airborne transmission by nasopharyngeal secretions crowding increases likelihood of transmission 3 Diphtheria usually observed in individuals >30 years old with weakened immunity to diphtheria toxin and living in tropical areas cutaneous diphtheria infection at a wound or skin lesion slow-healing ulceration Diagnosis observation of pseudomembrane in throat and bacterial culture Treatment, prevention, and control Antitoxin (to neutralized exotoxin) antibiotic therapy active immunization with DPT (diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus) or acellular DTap vaccine 4 Diphtheria inflammation the brain or spinal cord meninges Can be bacterial or viral bacterial may be diagnosed by Gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture of CSF may or may not grow bacteria major bacterial causes include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Hemophilus influenza (serotype b) may be endogenous infection (normal biota) N. meningitidis (meningococcus) causes epidemic meningitis 5 Meningitis transmitted by respiratory droplets clinical manifestations initial respiratory illness or sore throat interrupted by one of following: vomiting, headache, lethargy, confusion, and stiffness in neck and back may be fatal 6 Meningitis Treatment, prevention, and control N. meningitidis antibiotics (also prophylactic), vaccine recommended for college students, others H. influenzae pneumonia and meningitis kill 3 million worldwide/year vaccine (Hib) reduced cases to 1/100,000 S. pneumoniae vaccine and antibiotics 7 Meningitidis in soil, water, and house dust cause a number of human infections that are difficult to treat mycolic acid in cell wall is protective waxy material that is acid fast resistant to penetration of some antibiotics 8 Mycobacterium Infections referred to as M. avium complex (MAC) normal inhabitants of soil and water infect variety of insects, birds, and other animals respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts have been proposed as portals of entry most common cause of mycobacterial infections in the U.S....
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2012 for the course BIO 326R taught by Professor Whiteley during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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38_lecture - Chapter 38 Human Diseases Caused by Bacteria 1...

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