39_lecture - Chapter 39 Human Diseases Caused by Fungi and...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 39 Human Diseases Caused by Fungi and Protists 1 fungi are eukaryotic saprophytes ~50 produce mycoses in humans five groups depending on route of infection superficial, cutaneous, subcutaneous are all direct contact systemic infections have disseminated to visceral tissues (most are dimorphic, acquired from inhalation of spores) opportunistic mycoses 2 Pathogenic Fungi and Protists protozoa wide distribution in nature single-celled eukaryotic chemoorganotrophs transmission to humans arthropod vectors food and water vehicles direct contact 3 Pathogenic Fungi and Protists blastomycosis systemic mycosis caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis (dimorphic fungus) three clinical forms: cutaneous, pulmonary, and disseminated after lung inhalation spreads rapid to skin causing cutaneous ulcers and abscesses serologic tests for diagnosis amphotericin B, and other anti-fungal drugs for treatment 4 Airborne Diseases coccidioidomycosis endemic areas Valley fever, San Joaquin fever, or Desert Rheumatism dimorphic inhale the arthroconidia, converts to large spherule in body diagnosis demonstration of spherule prevention involves avoiding exposure to dust 5 Airborne Diseases 6 Figure 39.2 cryptococcosis systemic mycosis caused by yeast Cryptococcus neoformans source is dried pigeon droppings inhalation serious disease including meningitis in immunocompromised (e.g., AIDS); mild or pneumonia-like in others detecting encapsulated yeast in clinical specimen is diagnostic 7 Airborne Diseases 8 Figure 39.3 Histoplasmosis common lung disease caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum (dimorphic) acquired by inhalation of airborne microconidia in bird droppings converts to yeast phase in body; flu-like illness only rarely becomes disseminated prevented and controlled by wearing protective clothing and masks in endemic areas, infested habitats and by soil decontamination 9 Airborne Diseases malaria caused by four species of Plasmodium transmitted by bite of an infected female mosquito Asexual life cycle of plasmodium sporozoite injected with mosquito bite replicates as merozoite in hepatic cells released, enters erythrocytes and replicates lyses erythrocytes correlates with fever 10 Arthropod Borne Diseases 11 Figure 39.6 clinical manifestations periodic attacks of chills and fever anemia can result and the spleen and liver often hypertrophy can cause cerebral malaria in children and nonimmune individuals 12 Malaria diagnosis demonstration of parasites within Wright- or...
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39_lecture - Chapter 39 Human Diseases Caused by Fungi and...

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