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Unformatted text preview: simple (atomic) statements; abbreviate them by upper case letters. Identify all the connectives. Which are standard? Which are non-standard? Rewrite the sentence replacing the simple statements by their abbreviations. Retain internal punctuation. Identity the major connective. [Notice commas!] If the major connective is standard, symbolize it; otherwise, paraphrase it and repeat 4. Work on the constituent formulas resulting from 5 [go to 4]. Substitute constituents back into overall formula. Translate the formula back into English, and compare it with original sentence.
6 3 Example 1
if neither JAY nor KAY is working, then we will go on VACATION. 1. simple sentences J = Jay is working K = Kay is working V = we go on vacation 2. connectives if...then neither...nor (standard) (non-standard)
7 Example 1 b
3. first formula if neither J nor K, then V 4. main connective? if neither J nor K, then V 5. standard or non-standard? standard, so we symbolize it ( neither J nor K ) V
8 4 Example 1 c
6. work on constituents ( neither J nor K ) ( not J and not K ) ( J & K)
7. substitute constituents V ( J & K) V 8. translate formula back into English if Jay is not working, and Kay is not working, then we will go on vacation.
9 Example 2
unless the exam is EASY, I will PASS only if I STUDY 1. simple sentences E = the exam is easy P = I pass S = I study 2. connectives unless (non-standard) only if (non-standard)
10 5 Example 2 b
3. first formula unless E, P only if S 4. main...
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2012 for the course PHIL 110 taught by Professor Bohn during the Fall '08 term at UMass (Amherst).
- Fall '08