7.0 Aberrations in General

7.0 Aberrations in General - THE UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL...

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FALL Semester 2010 THE UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA OSE 6265 7.0 Aberrations in General James E. Harvey, Instructor 7.0
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7.1 7.1 Introduction In the Homework for Chapter 3, you used optimization to reduce or eliminate aberrations such as spherical aberration, coma and astigmatism. In Chapter 6 you saw how shifting the stop could be used to help reduce coma and astigmatism. Until now these aberrations have just been numbers seen in the merit function editor with designations: SPHA, COMA and ASTI. Although you have had some previous exposure to these basic aberrations, we will now present an introductory development of aberration theory . This is somewhat of a departure from Chapter 7 in the text where the author presents a qualitative review in which the aberrations are first described in the image plane, and then in the exit pupil . You would be well advised to study both the descriptions in the text, and to review and understand the development of wavefront aberration theory presented in this lecture
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7.2 Outline Ideal Images (Gaussian Optics) Geometrical Images (Ray Intercept Plots, Spot Diagrams) Historical Development of Aberration Theory Diffraction Effects (Through-focus Diffraction Image) Chromatic Aberration Monochromatic Aberrations The Wavefront Aberration Function First-order Aberrations o Defocus o Lateral Magnification Error Third-order (Seidel) Aberrations o Spherical Aberration o Coma o Astigmatism o Field Curvature o Distortion Wavefront and Ray Intercept Plots Spot Diagram Tree The Symmetrical Principle The Abbe Sine Condition
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7.2 Ray Fan Plots and Spot Diagrams (Geometrical Aberrations) 7.3 y Pupil Plane Spot Diagram in Image Plane ε x ε y y ) Real geometrical images (produced by tracing real Rays) typically exhibit non-ideal behavior (aberrations). These aberrations are characterized by meridional ray fan plots or spot diagrams .
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Ideal Images (Gaussian Optics) Since an extended object may be regarded as an array of point sources, an ideal imaging system for many applications would be one in which point objects are imaged into ideal point images over some limited field-of-view (ignoring diffraction, of course). First-order (or Gaussian) optics is often referred to as the optics of perfect imaging systems. Although this behavior cannot be achieved in practice, the value of Gaussian Image Formation Theory lies in the fact that well-corrected imaging systems approximate this ideal behavior and also that the first-order image positions and sizes provide a convenient reference from which to measure departures from perfection (aberrations). Object Point Image Point Imaging System 7.4 Surface of constant optical path length (OPL) from the object point.
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7.5 Historical Development of Aberration Theory Spherical Aberration (Described by Kepler 1611, Descartes 1634-37). Chromatic Aberration (Described by Newton 1671).
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2012 for the course ECON 101 taught by Professor Gulipektunc during the Spring '11 term at Middle East Technical University.

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7.0 Aberrations in General - THE UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL...

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