Chapter 16 Even Problem Solutions - CHAPTER SIXTEEN LIQUIDS...

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CHAPTER SIXTEEN LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Intermolecular Forces and Physical Properties 12. London dispersion (LD) < dipole-dipole < hydrogen bonding < metallic bonding, covalent network, ionic. Yes, there is considerable overlap. Consider some of the examples in Exercise 16.20. Benzene (only LD forces) has a higher boiling point than acetone (dipole-dipole). Also, there is even more overlap of the stronger forces (metallic, covalent, and ionic). 14. a. Polarizability of an atom refers to the ease of distorting the electron cloud. It can also refer to distorting the electron clouds in molecules or ions. Polarity refers to the presence of a permanent dipole moment in a molecule. b. London dispersion (LD) forces are present in all substances. LD forces can be referred to as accidental dipole - induced dipole forces. Dipole - dipole forces involve the attraction of molecules with permanent dipoles for each other. c. inter: between; intra: within; For example, in Br 2 the covalent bond is an intramolecular force, holding the two Br-atoms together in the molecule. The much weaker London dispersion forces are the intermolecular forces of attraction which hold different molecules of Br 2 together in the liquid phase. 16. a. OCS b. PF 3 c. SF 2 d. SeO 2 18. a. HCl; HCl is polar while Ar and F 2 are nonpolar. HCl has dipole forces unlike Ar and F 2 . b. NaCl; Ionic forces are much stronger than the intermolecular forces for molecular solids. c. I 2 ; All are nonpolar so the largest molecule (I 2 ) will have the strongest LD forces and the lowest vapor pressure. d. N 2 ; Nonpolar and smallest, so it has weakest intermolecular forces. e. H 2 O 2 ; H–O–O–H structure produces stronger H-bonding interactions than H– F so H 2 O 2 has the greatest viscosity. f. CH CH OH; Can form H-bonding interactions unlike the other covalent compounds. g. I 2 ; I 2 has only LD forces while CsBr and CaO have much stronger ionic forces. I 2 has the weakest intermolecular forces so it has the smallest H fusion . 20.
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LD forces only LD forces only Note: London dispersion forces in molecules like benzene and naphthalene are fairly large. The molecules are flat and there is efficient surface area contact between molecules. Large surface area contact leads to stronger London Dispersion Forces. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) has polar bonds but is a nonpolar molecule. CCl 4 only has LD forces. In terms of size and shape: CCl 4 < C 6 H 6 < C 10 H 8 The strengths of the LD forces are proportional to size and are related to shape. Although the size of CCl 4 is fairly large, the overall spherical shape gives rise to relatively weak LD forces as compared to flat molecules like benzene and naphthalene. The physical properties given in the problem are consistent with the order listed previously. Each of the physical properties will increase with an increase in intermolecular forces.
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